66747041-Plc-Based-Traffic-Control-System-Report.docx

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PLC BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM A final year project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the regulations for the award of BEng (Hons) in Electrical and Electronics Engineering. 2010/2011 AZEEZ OLAREWAJU LAWAL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF SUNDERLAND, SUNDERLAND UNITED KINGDOM PLC BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM BY
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  PLC BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM   A final year project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the regulations for the award of BEng (Hons) in Electrical and Electronics Engineering. 2010/2011   AZEEZ OLAREWAJU LAWAL   COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF SUNDERLAND, SUNDERLAND UNITED KINGDOM    PLC BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM BY AZEEZ OLAREWAJU LAWAL (099015901) Report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of BEng (Hons) in Electronics and Electrical Engineering. MAY, 2011.  CHAPTER 1   INTRODUCTION A traffic light is a collection of two or more coloured lights found at some junctions and pedestrian crossings which indicates whether it is safe and/or legal to continue across the path of other road users. In the United Kingdom, traffic lights are widely used both on major roads and in built-up areas. Their numbers have increased exponentially since they were first invented in 1868. The operation of standard traffic lights which are currently deployed in many junctions, are based on predetermined timing schemes, which are fixed during the installation and remain until further resetting. The timing is no more than a default setup to control what may be considered as normal traffic. Although every road junction by necessity requires different traffic light timing setup, many existing systems operate with an over-simplified sequence. This has instigated various ideas and scenarios to solve the traffic problem. To design an intelligent and efficient traffic control system, a number of parameters that represent the status of the road conditions must be identified and taken into consideration. 1.1 Background History The first traffic lights actually had their roots in the railway signals used at the time,where two gas lamps, one red and one green, would be alternately hidden by a semaphore arm depending on whether the arm was in a horizontal position or at a 30° angle. The first lights were installed outside the Houses of Parliament in London on 10 December, 1868 to control the increasing number of vehicles there. However, according to some sources, they later exploded and injured the policeman operating them. The first electric lights were developed in the USA in the early 20th Century. Various people lay claim to the invention of the modern traffic light. These include:  (i)   Lester Wire , a Salt Lake City policeman who set up the first red-green electric traffic lights in 1912. (ii)   James Hoge , from Cleveland, who in 1914 designed some red-green electric lights with a buzzer which sounded when the lights changed. (iii)   William Potts  from Detroit, who designed the first three-colour electric traffic lights in 1920. (iv)   John Harriss , a Police Commissioner from New York who developed the first interconnected three-colour electric traffic lights in 1922. (v)   Garrett Morgan , from Cleveland, who in 1923 designed a cross-shaped signalling device which is often mistakenly referred to as the first traffic light. Once the USA had finished reinventing the traffic light, it was adopted in the UK. The first automatic lights were installed in Princes Square in Wolverhampton. Nowadays, traffic lights are often operated by complex computer software designed to optimise traffic flow [1]. This optimization is done using the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC).
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