A Bibliography on the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence-NASA-RP-1021

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The present Bibliography on Searching for Extraterrestrial Intelligence is a uniform compilation and update of the previous bibliographies through February 1977. The major decision to omit references dealing with interstellar transport was made in order to reflect the thrust of the intensified research on listening for.signals from extraterrestrial intelligence.
  NASA Reference Publication 1021 A Bibliography on the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence A BIBLIOGRAPHY ON THE SEARCE' N78-21-019 FOR EXTRA REESTRIAI INTEIIC-!NC (NAS .) 135 p BC A6.7/mF Ao1, CSCT 05 HB 120 _ .I j / 8 8 - 1 2 7 06 , tNAS-A-P--1021 Eugene F. Mallove, Mary M. Connors, Robert L. Forward,andZbigniew Papromy MARCH1978 CZ   S 81 FACILITY P/ r NASAeg  NASA Reference Publication 1021 A Bibliography on the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Eugene F. Mallove The Analytic Science Corporation, Reading, Massachusetts Mary M. Connors Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California Robert L. Forward Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, California Zbigniew Paprotny Orzeszkowej 14,44-200, Rybnik, Poland NGAS National Aeronautics and Space Administration Scientific and Technical Information Office 1978  The Universe is full of magical things, patiently waiting for our witsto grow sharper. Eden Phillpotts INTRODUCTION Fewquestions excite the human imagination as do: Arewe alonein the universe? and, if weare not alone then, Whereare 'They'? The concept of innumerable populated worldsin the universe has existedfor millenia, but onlyin comparatively recent times hasserious thought been given to how we might communicate with our presumed extraterrestrial neighbors. Willey LeyandWernher von Braun note in their book, The Exploration of Mars (ref. 722), that the PierreGuzmanPrize of 100,000 francs was offered by the French Academy of Sciences in 1900 to whoeversucceeded in establishing communication with another world other than Mars. In 1900, communicationwithsupposed intelligent beings on Marswas considered too easy to merit an award!Present scientificunderstandingholds little hope that advanced nonhuman intelligence exists elsewhere in this solar system (whales and porpoises,perhaps,excepted). If contact is to be made with other intelligence in the universe, man must bridge thegulf of interstellar space, which for the nearest stellarneighbor is 500,000 times larger than Earth's closest approach to the red planet. In 1959 Giuseppe Cocconiand Philip Morrison proposed in a pioneering article in Nature that the 21-cm neutral hydrogen wavelengthbe monitored byradiotelescopesfor signs of communi cative intelligence on planets of the nearer stars. In the early 1960'sthe literature of interstellarcommunication - searching for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) - was miniscule. Following the publication in 1963 of A. G. W. Cameron's InterstellarCommunication, a veritableexplosion of journal articles and books about SETI began to appear. A first step in keeping track of this expanding literature was taken in 1967 with the publication by Robert L. Forward of a Bibliog raphy of Interstellar Travel and Communication. This initialbibliography was supplementedconsiderably from the body of growing literature and was issued as a research report by Hughes Research Laboratories in May, 1971 by Eugene Mallove and Robert L. Forward. Subsequent updating of thisbibliography by Mallove, Forward, and Paprotny led to its serialized publicationin the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society (red-cover interstellar studies issues) in1974, 1975, and 1976. Another version of this same bibliography was published in 1974 in Interstellar Communication: Scientific Perspectives, edited by Cyril Ponnamperumaand A.G. W. Cameron.The present Bibliography on Searching for Extraterrestrial Intelligence is a uniformcompila tion and update of the previous bibliographies through February 1977. The major decision to omit references dealing with interstellar transport was made in order to reflect the thrust of the intensifiedresearchon listening for. signals from extraterrestrial intelligence. In thisbibliography of 1488 references, the entries are orderedalphabeticallyby first author andare consecutively  numbered. A topic index having the organization shown on pages 3 and 4precedes the list of references. An effort was made to define topics more narrowly than in previous bibliographies. The vast majority of works was obtained, scanned, and classified into one or more topics, thus acknowledging the breadth of some of the references. Works whichwereunavailable for reading or which were untranslated were assigned to most probable topics based on theirtitle, authorship, and source.Following the topic index is a periodical and source index which may be useful in recalling forgotten references and in exhaustively obtaining SETI material from journals which may be convenient to a particular researcher. In compiling the bibliography, prominent scientific journals were scanned for possible entries.Certain periodicals contain a wealth of relevant materialandothers have very little, so a certain degree of unevenness in the search was inevitable.The International AerospaceAbstracts were used to find many of the technical articles. Materialin a more popular vein was obtained from the Reader's Guide. Cross references to other literature in articles which were obtained were also valuable in finding additional references. Many Eastern European and other international works were obtained by Zbigniew Paprotny of Poland. Some references were gathered fromsuggestions sent by people from various nations following publication of the earlierbibliographies. I The authors wish to apologize for any important omissions or errors which may have occurred. Letters withcorrections or suggestions for additions which might affectfuture editions of this report should be sent to Dr. Mary Connors at NASAAmes Research Center, Moffett Field, California. The universal appeal of the SETI problem has been overwhelmingly apparent from the international character of the expanding literature. People the world over are increasingly aware of the very real prospects for contacting other civilizations. At present there are only dim intimations of the true scope of the problem, crude and speculative probabilities with which to judge the chances of a successfulsearch. Men widely debate the consequences of contact - some fear the prospect. The consequences of failure to detect signals maybe even greater and may be an ominous portent for our civilization, but if signals fromdistant life are now beaming our way, sooner or later we will findthem! Ames ResearchCenterNational Aeronauticsand Space AdministrationMoffettField, Calif., 94035, May 31, 1977. 2
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