Botanical Pesticides Current Challenges and Reverse Pharmacological Approach for Future Discoveries 2155 6202.1000e125

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Botanical Pesticides Current Challenges and Reverse Pharmacological Approach for Future Discoveries 2155 6202.1000e125
  Botanical Pesticides: Current Challenges and Reverse Pharmacological Approachfor Future Discoveries Manas Sarkar  *   and   Rajendra Kshirsagar  Research and Development Division, Godrej Consumers Product Ltd., Mumbai 400079, India * Corresponding author:  Sarkar M, Research and Development Division, Godrej Consumers Product Ltd., Mumbai, India, Tel: 91-9999483078; E-mail: Rec date:  Aug 01, 2014, Acc date:  Aug 04, 2014, Pub date:  Aug 07, 2014 Copyright:  © 2014 Sarkar M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricteduse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the srcinal author and source are credited. Introduction In ancient culture and in dierent  parts of world, there existempirical knowledge of the use of plants for pest control for thousandsof years (approx. 1500 BC), for example rotenone in east Asia andsouth America, neem in India, sabadilla in central and south America,and pyrethrin in Persia (Iran). Subsequently, botanical insecticideswere introduced in prominent continents like Europe and United states[1]. Botanicals (phytochemicals) are basically secondary metabolitesthat serve as means of defense mechanism of the plants to withstandthe continuous selection pressure from herbivore predators and otherenvironmental factors. Many groups of phytochemicals such assteroids, alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics and essential oils from morethan 2000 plant species have been reported previously for theirinsecticidal activities. Applications of phytochemicals in mosquitocontrol were in use since 1920, but the discovery of syntheticinsecticides such as DDT in 1939 sidetracked the application of phytochemicals in dierent  segments. Synthetic insecticides spreadeasily and rapidly because it won space on market as products being eective,  cheaper, long lasting and easily available. Aer  facingproblems due to injudicious and over application of syntheticinsecticides in nature, refocus on phytochemicals that are easily biodegradable and have no ill eects  on non-target organisms wasappreciated. From 1990s, there is renewed interest for use of botanicalpesticides due to concerns raised about the rampant supply of synthetic insecticides and its irreversible impact on health andenvironment; its presence in food web is quite worrying matter forhealth professionals. At present, phytochemicals make up to 1% of world’s pesticide market [2]. Current Research and Commercialization Challenges In a quest of nding  solutions for ubiquitous harmful insectsthrough botanicals, there has been considerable research happening inthe world. However, very few research projects translate in to distinctproduct launches. Everybody wants to have quick results for savingcost, time and energy. Hence, most of the academic research is perhapsincomplete because of its design having short term goals. As a result,the outcome is eected  by poorly conducted study, inadequate data,poor analytical work, invalidated data, supercial  experimentationhaving exclusive objective to have a publication. Terefore,  fundingauthorities should give serious thought as to how the research reachesto the end point through systematic research and team eorts  of  dierent  stake holders. Plant based research in India is no longer pieceof cake for anybody in view of Biodiversity legislation, 2002. Anybody plans to work on plants, one has to get permission from StateBiodiversity Board (SBB). SBB will hold meetings with localmanagement committees and experts from the eld  of plant taxonomy,social forestry, zoology, geology, ornithology, etc and then permissionis granted. Ten  actual collection, processing and screening samplesfor proposed bioactivity is initiated. Once bioactivity is discovered in aplant, then the commercialization of that plant based product remainsto be great challenge. First and foremost priority should be generatingproof of concept data by collecting same species from dierent  districtscovering dierent  phytogeographical locations, collection in dierent seasons, collecting species in dierent  stages, collection of dierent plant parts of same species, processing of the same up to extractionand lastly systematic biological evaluations on concerned pest of interest. Side by side, one also have to rule out the possible externalcauses of bioactivity (e.g., whether or not the ecacy   is due to residualpesticides that may have been sprayed on crops in agricultural land).Consumption of herbal/Ayurveda medicine is widespread andincreasing. Te  chief source of raw material is harvesting herbs fromthe wild which is causing loss of genetic diversity and damage to planthabitat. Terefore,  domestic cultivation is a viable alternative that oers  opportunity to overcome challenges of inconsistency in plantmaterials and extracts due to factors like wrong identication, phenotypic and genetic variability, extract variability and unstablenature for longer timespan, toxic components and contaminants. Forcommercialization of any plant based product, raw material sourcing isa real challenge. Tere  are challenges for cultivation and propagation of any wild species. If propagation is by seeds, then it has go throughgermination, domestication studies, developing package and practicesfor cultivation, determining pesticidal and manure requirements, re-establishing the bioactivity prole  of the plants produced from ex-situcultivation, addressing factors like change in climate, soil, rainfall,temperature where cultivation is taking place, mobilization of hundreds of hectares of land, testing soil for deciding manure/mineralsetc. requirements, assessment of impact of the cultivation on thepeople residing around those villages, assessment of impact of largescale cultivation on environment vis-à-vis pollen allergies, species(under cultivation) competing with native species, any adverse eect on soil fertility if species under cultivation is having anity   with waterand also crop rotation studies. Cultivation of the bioactive plantspecies will depends on habit of the plant, habitat, size of the seeds,dormancy pattern, seasonality, annual/perennial, secondary metabolites generation, climate, geology, rainfall, endemism, status of the species (rare, threatened, endangered, critically endangered), rules& regulations for that species germplasm, seed coat pattern, etc.Alternative route can be through controlled environments which willsolve problems of cultivation. Tis  can also manipulate phenotypic variation in bioactive compounds and toxins. Conventional plant-breeding programme may improve both agronomic and medicinaltraits. Tere  has been signicant  progress in biotechnological methods Journal of Biofertilizers &Biopesticides Sarkar et al., J Biofertil Biopestici 2014, 5:2 EditorialOpen ccess J Biofertil BiopesticiISSN:2155-6202 JBFBP, an open access journalVolume 5 ã Issue 2 ã e125  like tissue culture and genetic engineering in altering biosynthesis of target molecules. Reverse Pharmacology: A Way to Botanical PesticideDiscovery  As per Katiyar et al. [3], total number of higher plants species(comprising angiosperms and gymnosperms) is approximately 250,000, out of them only 6% have been screened for biologicalactivity. Initial listing of the candidate species for screening of biological activity is a major task of specic  importance in itself. Forthe purpose, Fabricant and Farnsworth [4], proposed followingapproaches.First is random approach in which the plants collected randomly and screened them irrespective of their contents or reports inliterature. National Cancer Institute (NCI) of National Institute of Health, USA, thoroughly studied about 35,000 plant species foranticancerous segment investing over two decades (1960-1980),discovered two molecules viz., paclitaxel and camptothecin.Second is traditional system of medicine approach; countries likeIndia and China have a rich heritage of well-documented traditionalsystem of medicine. Discovery of artemisinin from Artemesia alba   formalaria; guggulsterones from Commiphora mukul   for hyperlipidemia;boswellic acids from Boswellia serrata   for anti-inammatory  properties; bacosides from Bacopa monnieri as nootropic and memory enhancement; reserpine from Rauwolfa   serpentina   was based on theleads from these codied  systems of medicine prevailing in China andIndia. Tird  is ethnopharmacology approach; this essentially depends onempirical experiences related to the use of botanical drugs for thediscovery of NCEs having target specic  activity. Whole processcomprises observation, description, and in-vitro or in-vivoexperimental investigation of indigenous formulations, and is based onchemistry, botany, biochemistry, pharmacology and other dierent disciplines like archaeology, anthropology, history and linguistics. Tis approach based on ethnomedicinal usage history that has seen somesuccesses like Andrographis paniculata being used for dysentery inethnomedicine and the compounds responsible for the activity wereisolated as andrographolide; Morphine from Papaver somniferum;  Berberine from Berberis aristata   and Picroside from Picrorrhiza kurroa   are some examples of this approach. Tis  approach seems to beappropriate because, biological, ecological and cultural diversity of any nation leads to generation of empirical and scientic  knowledge, the rst  has its srcin in ancient times with practices of observation of thenature and experimentation through trial and error, and inheritancetransmitted from generation to generation through test and stories.Botanists have been interested in reviewing corroborated and enriched ethnoora  stating biological signicance  and the search for new pesticidal phytocompounds useful in protecting and preserving food.Ethnobotany is considered as source for research of phytopesticides of interest to agricultural as well as protection from fatal diseases causedby mosquitoes. Hence, ethnobotanical studies are now recognized tobe most viable methods of identifying new medicinal plants. In 2010,Kshirsagar et al. [5], discovered antioxidant and anti-inammatory  compounds from tubers of Eulophiao chreata  , namely; 9,10-Dihydro-2,5-Dimethoxyphenanthrene-1,7-diol and 5,7-Dimethoxyphenanthrene- 2,6-diol. Since time immortal, the tubershave been used by Pawra tribe of Satpuda mountain ranges of Maharashtra for rejuvenating, aphrodisiac and anti-inammatory  properties.However, in India, ethnopharmacological approach for nding biopesticidal botanicals has been considerably underexplored. In 1991,Jain [6] published dictionary of Indian Folk Medicine andEthnobotany based on compilation of research of preceding 30 years. Te  dictionary reports just 4 plants as biopesticides out of 2532 specieswhich clearly indicates that this eld  remains signicantly   unexplored.In last two decades only few research papers throw some light on thistopic. For example, Phani Kumar and AlkaChaturvedi [7] tell about 2plants for insecticidal property. Bhardwaj et al. [8], deals with variousplants are being used as ethnomedicines against insects and worms inAravalli hill range of India. Senthilkumar et al. [9] deals withinsecticidal properties of certain ora  based on ethnobotanical recordsagainst Teak defoliator. Anjali Mathur and Hema Joshi [10] mentionabout 8 plants being insecticidal. Considering the gap inethnobotanical knowledge documentation and its systematicbiopesticidal exploration by using modern techniques andsophisticated instruments, the eorts  should be made to bridge the gapby initiating aggressive studies, since, India harbors around 400 dierent  tribes amounting to 7.5% population of whole country. References 1. Elisa GPL, Laura P, Graciela BZ, Víctor M, VelázquezH (2012) In: CurrentStatus: Mexican Medicinal Plants with Insecticidal Potential, BioactiveCompounds in Phytomedicine, Prof. IrajRasooli (Ed.), Mexico. 2. Anupam G, Nandita C, Goutam C (2012) Plant extracts as potentialmosquito larvicides. Indian J Med Res 135: 581-598. 3. Chandrakant, Arun G, Kanjilal, Shefali K (2012) Drug discovery from plantresources: An integrated approach. An International Quarterly Journal of Research in Ayurveda 33: 10–19. 4. Fabricant DS, Farnsworth NR (2001) Te  value of plants used in traditionalmedicine for drug discovery. Environ Health Perspect 109 (Suppl 1): 69–75. 5. Rajendra KD, Yogesh KB, Suresh JD, Shakti UN, Rajesh R, et al. (2010)Phenanthrenes of Eulophia ochreata Lindl. International Journal of GreenPharmacy 147-152. 6. Jain SK (1991) Dictionary of Indian Folk Medicine and Ethnobotany. DeepPublications, New Dehli. 7. Phani PG, Alka C (2010) Ethnobotanical Observations of EuphorbiaceaeSpecies from Vidarbha region, Maharashtra, India. Ethnobotanical Leaets 14: 674-680. 8. Bhardwaj M, Bharadwaj L, Trigunayat K, Trigunayat MM (2011)Insecticidal and wormicidal plants from Aravalli hill range of India. J Ethnopharmacol 136: 103-110. 9. Senthilkumar N, Murugesan S, Vijayalakshmi KB, Monisha M, Suresh BabuD, et al. (2012) Insecticidal Properties of Certain Flora based onEthnobotanical Records Against Teak defoliator, H. puera Cramer(Lepidoptera: Hybaeidae). European Journal of Experimental Biology 2:513-519. 10. Mathur A and Joshi H (2013) Ethnobotanical Studies of the Tarai Region of Kumaun, Uttarakhand, India. Ethnobotany Research & Applications11:175-203.   Citation: Sarkar M, Kshirsagar R (2014) Botanical Pesticides: Current Challenges and Reverse Pharmacological Approach for FutureDiscoveries. J Biofertil Biopestici 5: 1000e125. doi:10.4172/2155-6202.1000e125Page 2 of 2J Biofertil BiopesticiISSN:2155-6202 JBFBP, an open access journalVolume 5 ã Issue 2 ã e125
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