Conflict is Actual or Perceived Opposition of Needs

|
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
 9 views
of 4

Please download to get full document.

View again

Description
Conflict is actual or perceived opposition of needs, values and interests. A conflict can be internal (within oneself) to individuals. Conflict as a concept can help explain many aspects of social life such as social disagreement, conflicts of interests, and fights between individuals, groups, or organizations. In political terms, conflict can refer to wars, revolutions or other struggles, which may involve the use of force as in the term armed conflict. Without proper social arrangement or re
Share
Tags
Transcript
  Conflict is actual or perceived opposition of  needs, values and interests. A conflict can be internal (within oneself) to individuals. Conflict as a concept can help explain many aspects of social life such as social disagreement,conflicts of interests, and fights between individuals,   groups, or organizations. In political terms, conflict can refer to wars,revolutions or other   struggles, which may involve the use of force as in the term armed conflict.Without proper social arrangement or resolution, conflicts in social settings can result in stress or tensions among stakeholders. When an interpersonal conflict does occur, its effect is often broader than twoindividuals involved, and can affect many associate individuals and relationships, in more or lessadverse, and sometimes even humorous way.Conflict as taught for graduate and professional work in conflict resolution (which can be win- win, where both parties get what they want, win-lose where one party gets what they want, orlose-lose where both parties don't get what they want) commonly has the definition: when twoor more parties, with perceived incompatible goals, seek to undermine each other's goal-seekingcapability .One should not confuse the distinction between the presence and absence of conflict with thedifference between competition and co-operation.In competitive situations, the two or more   individuals or parties each have mutually inconsistent goals, either party tries to reach their goalit will undermine the attempts of the other to reach theirs. Therefore, competitive situations will,by their nature, cause conflict but if you have good sportsmanship or are just fair it won't causeundesirable conflict. However, conflict can also occur in cooperative situations, in which two ormore individuals or parties have consistent goals, because the manner in which one party tries toreach their goal can still undermine the other individual or party.A clash of interests, values, actions or directions often sparks a conflict. Conflicts refer to theexistence of that clash. Psychologically, a conflict exists when the reduction of one motivatingstimulus involves an increase in another, so that a new adjustment is demanded. The word isapplicable from the instant that the clash occurs. Even when we say that there is a potentialconflict we are implying that there is already a conflict of direction even though a clash may notyet have occurred. Contents [hide]     1 Stages of conflict     2 Types of conflict     3 Ways of addressing conflict     4 Ongoing conflicts     5 See also     6 References     7 External links   [edit] Stages of conflict Please help improve this article by expanding it. Further information might be foundon the talk page.    [edit] Types of conflict The lists in this article may contain items that are not notable, encyclopedic,or helpful . Please help out by removing such elements and incorporating appropriate items into the main body of the article. (October 2009)     A conceptual conflict can escalate into a verbal exchange and/or result in fighting.Conflict can   exist at a variety of levels of analysis:    community conflict    diplomatic conflict    economic conflict    emotional conflict     environmental resources conflict    external conflict    group conflict       ideological conflict    international conflict    interpersonal conflict    intersocietal conflict    intrastate conflict (for example: civil wars, election campaigns)    intrapersonal conflict (though this usually just gets delegated out to psychology)       organizational conflict       intra-societal conflict    military conflict       religious-based conflict (for example: Center For Reduction of Religious-Based   Conflict).      workplace conflict       data conflict    relationship conflict    racial conflictConflicts in these levels may appear nested in conflicts residing at larger levels of analysis. Forexample, conflict within a work team may play out the dynamics of a broader conflict in theorganization as a whole. (See Marie Dugan's article on Nested Conflict. John Paul Lederach has   also written on this.) Theorists have claimed that parties can conceptualize responses to conflictaccording to a two-dimensional scheme; concern for one's own outcomes and concern for theoutcomes of the other party. This scheme leads to the following hypotheses:     High concern for both one's own and the other party's outcomes leads to attempts to findmutually beneficial solutions.    High concern for one's own outcomes only leads to attempts to win the conflict.    High concern for the other party's outcomes only leads to allowing the other to win theconflict.    No concern for either side's outcomes leads to attempts to avoid the conflict.In Western society,practitioners usually suggest that attempts to find mutually beneficial   solutions lead to the most satisfactory outcomes, but this may not hold true for many Asiansocieties. Several theorists detect successive phases in the development of conflicts.Often a group finds itself in conflict over facts, goals, methods or values. It is critical that it   properly identify the type of conflict it is experiencing if it hopes to manage the conflict throughto resolution. For example, a group will often treat an assumption as a fact.The more difficult type of conflict is when values are the root cause.It is more likely that a conflict over facts, or assumptions, will be resolved than one over values. It is extremely difficultto prove that a value is right or correct . In some instances, a group will benefit from the useof a facilitator or process consultant to help identify the specific type of conflict. Practitioners of    nonviolence have developed many practices to solve social and political conflicts withoutresorting to violence or coercion.Conflict can arise between several characters and there can be more than one in a story or plotline. The little plot lines usually enhance the main conflict.Conflict also defines as natural disagreement resulting from individuals or groups that differ inbeliefs, attitudes, values or needs. It can also srcinate from past rivalries and personalitydifferences. Other causes of conflict include trying to negotiate before the timing is right orbefore needed information is available. The following are the causes of conflict:    communication failure    personality conflict    value differences    goal differences    methodological differences    substandard performance    lack of cooperation    differences regarding authority    differences regarding responsibility    competition over resources    non-compliance with rules (LO)A definition of a conflict can be the subject of legal action has three invariants [1]  :      legal    technical     emotional [edit] Ways of addressing conflict Five basic ways of addressing conflict were identified by Thomas and Kilman in 1976: [2][3]        Accommodation   –  surrender one's own needs and wishes to accommodate the otherparty.    Avoidance   –  avoid or postpone conflict by ignoring it, changing the subject, etc.Avoidance can be useful as a temporary measure to buy time or as an expedient means of dealing with very minor, non-recurring conflicts. In more severe cases, conflict avoidancecan involve severing a relationship or leaving a group. [4]        Collaboration   –  work together to find a mutually beneficial solution. While the ThomasKilman grid views collaboration as the only win-win solution to conflict, collaborationcan also be time-intensive and inappropriate when there is not enough trust, respect orcommunication among participants for collaboration to occur.    Compromise   –  find a middle ground in which each party is partially satisfied.      Competition   –  assert one's viewpoint at the potential expense of another. It can be useful   when achieving one's objectives outweighs one's concern for the relationship. [5]     The Thomas Kilmann Instrument can be used to assess one's dominant style for addressingconflict. [6]     [edit] Ongoing conflicts  Main article: Ongoing conflicts    Many NGOs and independent groups attempt to monitor the situation of ongoing conflicts. Unfortunately, the definitions of war, conflict, armed struggle, revolution and all these words   which describe violent opposition between States or armed organised groups, are not preciseenough to distinguish one from another. For example, the word  terrorism  is used indifferently bymany governments to delegitimate every kind of armed revolt and, at the same time, by manyrebel groups to delegitimate the armed repression of sovereign governments. [edit] See also
Related Search
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks
SAVE OUR EARTH

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

x