Energy Analysis and Exergy Utilization in the Transportation Sector of Jordan

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ARTICLE IN PRESS Energy Policy 36 (2008) 2995– 3000 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Energy Policy journal homepage: Energy analysis and exergy utilization in the transportation sector of Jordan J.O. Jaber a,Ã, A. Al-Ghandoor b, S.A. Sawalha a a b Faculty of Engineering Technology, Al-Balqa’ Applied University, Amman, Jordan Department of Industrial Engineering, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan a r t i c l e in fo Article history: Received 24 Fe
  Energy analysis and exergy utilization in the transportation sector of Jordan  J.O. Jaber a, à , A. Al-Ghandoor b , S.A. Sawalha a a Faculty of Engineering Technology, Al-Balqa’ Applied University, Amman, Jordan b Department of Industrial Engineering, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan a r t i c l e i n f o  Article history: Received 24 February 2008Accepted 7 April 2008Available online 2 June 2008 Keywords: Transport sectorExergy analysisEfficiency a b s t r a c t The transport sector is responsible for about 37% of total final energy demand in Jordan, and thus it isconsidered an important driver for determining future national energy needs. This paper presentsenergy analysis and exergy utilization in the transportation sector of Jordan by considering the sectoralenergy and exergy flows for the last two decades. The transportation sector, in Jordan, is a two-modesystem, namely, road, which covers almost all domestic passenger and freight transport and airways.The latter is mainly used for international flights. The average estimated overall energy and exergyefficiencies were found as 23.2% and 22.8%, respectively. This simply indicates that there is largepotential for improvement and efficiency enhancement. It is believed that the present technique ispractical and useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization to determine how efficientlyenergy and exergy are used in the transportation sector. It is also helpful to establish standards, basedon exergy, to facilitate applications in different planning processes such as energy planning. Acomparison with other countries showed that energy and exergy efficiencies of the Jordanian transportsector are slightly lower than that of Turkey, and higher than those incurred in Malaysia, Saudi Arabiaand Norway. Such difference is inevitable due to dissimilar structure of the transport sector in thesecountries. & 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction All researchers, experts and even politicians have consideredthat the world’s transportation system is not sustainable becauseautomobile use and density have strongly increased during the lastfew decades (Steg and Gifford, 2005). As recently stated byRichardson (2005), transportation systems not only play a majorrole in the sustainability of the earth but also they, themselves,mustbe sustained inorder tocontinuetoafford to allpeopleaccessto the economic and social opportunities necessary for lifemeaningful, i.e. high demand and security of supply as well asurban pollution issues. Thus, most of the recent studies (Liu andGolovitcher, 2003;Jaccard et al., 2004;Leonardi and Baumgaryner, 2004;Litman, 2005;Shrestha et al., 2005;Simoes and Schaeffer, 2005;Steg and Gifford, 2005;Tzeng et al., 2005) are concentrated on the area of increasing energy efficiency by better management,operation, energy sources, transport technologies, etc. Jordan is a small country in the north-western corner of Asia,and lies in one of the most volatile areas in the world, i.e. theMiddle East region. Unfortunately, unlike other Arab neighboringcountries, it is a non-oil-producing country with limited naturalresources and minerals. Its economy was based primarily onagriculture and farming; however, in recent decades the im-portance of the agricultural sector has declined both in terms of its contribution to the national income and as the main source of employment. The country has become more dependent onservices and manufacturing sectors as well as tourism andtransport activities. As other developing Asian countries, it has arapid population growth of about 2.52% (DoS, 2006). Thepopulation and economic growth as well as development that Jordan experienced since its independence, in the mid-1950s,impliedagradual shiftof the populationfromruraltourbanareas.Thus, urban population has increased from about 70%, in 1990, to82%, in 2005, of the total population, putting the kingdom amongthe most urbanized countries in Asia. If present policies remainunchanged, the urbanpopulation is expectedtoexceed 85% bytheend of this decade. A major structural phenomenon of urbaniza-tion is the increasing shift of large proportions of the populationto modern centers with relatively high incomes, requiring higherrates of energy consumption to sustain new life.The transport sector, in Jordan, is a two-mode system, relyingprincipally on road and air transports; main indicators concerningthe Jordanian transportation sector, during the period 1970–2005,are summarized inTable 1(DoS, 1971–2006). The number of  diesel vehicles grew faster during 1970–2005, i.e. about double ARTICLE IN PRESS Contents lists available atScienceDirectjournal Energy Policy 0301-4215/$-see front matter & 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2008.04.004 à Corresponding author. Fax: +96264790350. E-mail addresses: (J.O. Jaber),, (A. Al-Ghandoor).Energy Policy 36 (2008) 2995–3000  the rate, than gasoline vehicles. This can be attributed to the largedifference between unit prices of diesel and gasoline, whichencouraged private and public sectors to buy diesel-poweredvehicles, especially double-cabin pick-ups. For the same period,both gasoline and diesel-operated vehicles grew at higher ratesthan population, urbanization, real income and average energyconsumption. The main driving factors behind such above-normalgrowth rates of vehicles ownership in Jordan are bad and limitedservices of public transportation modes and the increasingactivities in all sectors of the economy as well as roadtransportation being the only used mode for domestic passengerand goods movements. Shipping activities are limited to thoseoccurring in the Aqaba port, since it is the only access for Jordanon sea, and mainly used for exporting indigenous commoditiessuch as phosphate, potash and importing various types of goodsinto Jordan and transit freight to Iraq.The length of national roads network was nearly 7600km in2005, of which over 3000km are main roads, while the remainingare either secondary or rural roads (Ministry of Public Works andHousing, 2006). In 2005, there were 673,000 vehicles registeredand operating in the country compared to only 24,000 in 1970(DoS, 1971–2006). This translates to a vehicle ownership ratio of 122 vehicles/1000 persons. Although this ratio is much higherthan the average ratio for the Middle East and North Africa region,it still gives much room for potential increase (Al-Hinti et al.,2007).In recent years, concern about energy consumption in Jordanhas been growing, especially, in the transport sector, which wasprobably affected the most by the economic and technologicalchanges that the country has witnessed during the past threedecades. For example, the number of road vehicles in Jordan roseby almost 1000% during the last 30 years, while the number of airpassengers increased approximately by 460% (DoS, 1971–2006).The enormous increase in the number of operating vehicles hascontributed to a significant increase in the local energy demandand an increasing amount of damage to the natural environmentas a result of pollutingemissions. This is ensuing principally in theAmman–Zarqa region, in the middle of the kingdom, where about60% of the national population and nearly 70% of the urbanpopulations live ( Jaber and Probert, 2001;Jaber et al., 2004). Transportation is the largest single consumer of energy in Jordan,in 2006, with a share of around 37% of the total final energyconsumption in the form of diesel, gasoline and jet fuel (MEMR,2007). During the year 2005, nearly 65,000 new vehicles wereregistered and licensed for the first time in Jordan. Approximately80% of the licensed and operating fleet is in the central region, i.e.Amman–Zarqa, with a high percentage of vehicles being morethan 10 years old, especially the freight transport category. Oldvehicles usually have high rates of fuel consumption due to oldengine technologies and deterioration in performance, conse-quently causing a high degree of pollution.Despite the fact that the transportation sector plays animportant role in determining the country’s energy demand, inopen literature, energy use in the Jordanian transportation hasgenerally received little attention. This may be due to itscomplexity, large number of stakeholders and lack of awarenessand resources to conduct detailed studies for various elements of this sector.The present study aims to examine energy use patterns for thetwo main categories of the Jordanian transportation sector, toapply the energy and exergy modelling techniques to thetransportation sector of Jordan for a period of 1985–2006 in orderto assess its performance, to study the variations of energy andexergy efficiencies in the transportation sector over the yearsstudied, and to compare the energy and exergy efficiencies of transportation sector for several countries against Jordan. It isdeemed that this study would bridge the existing gaps of information related to patterns of fuel consumption for differentsub-sectors in Jordan. 2. Energy and exergy modelling  The demand for primary energy in 2006 was about 7.187million tons of oil equivalent (toe), compared with 2.4 million toein 1982. The transport sector is the largest single consumer,followed by households and industry — seeFig. 1. InFig. 1,others include commercial and services, government and agriculturalsectors. The high sharing ratio of the transport sector in thenational energy demand is mainly due to non-existence of water-ways or modern rail networks, lack of efficient and modern masstransport systems, relative weakness of the industrial sector andthe relatively moderate climatic conditions which result in amoderate energy demand in the residential sector. The currentpattern of sectoral energy consumption is most likely to remainunchanged in the future if current polices and strategies are not ARTICLE IN PRESS  Table 1 Selected indicators concerning the transportation sector in JordanItem 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005Population (10 6 ) 1.723 1.810 2.233 2.700 3.468 4.291 5.039 5.485Urban population (%) 62.8 63.0 62.3 69.5 70.0 78.2 78.7 82.0Real GDP per capita (US$yr À 1 ) 288 492 1259 1665 1085 1550 1677 2345Energy consumption per capita (ton of oil equivalent, toe) 0.306 0.501 0.819 1.044 0.953 1.025 1.022 1.281Gasoline vehicles (10 3 ) 19.5 49.8 112.7 160.4 178.5 179.9 254.0 475.6Diesel vehicles (10 3 ) 4.7 11.0 22.6 61.5 76.2 99.6 118.6 197.5Fuel consumption (10 3 tons)Gasoline consumption 92.3 134.0 269.0 359.0 360.6 488.0 604.0 697.0Diesel consumption 41.0 80.0 135.0 308.2 443.8 450.3 518.5 674.7 Jet fuel consumption – 56.0 209 246.0 223.5 241.0 173.0 314.0Length of paved roads (10 3 km) 3.18 3.60 4.23 5.40 6.00 7.13 7.20 7.60Air transportFreight (10 3 ) 1132 15,045 28,959 43,095 67,457 78,176 81,112 99,549Passenger volume (10 3 ) 119.4 615.5 1111.5 1290.3 1814.2 1775.4 2350.4 3462.3Shipping activitiesNo. of ships 220 516 1466 2671 2222 2382 2505 2933Exports (10 3 tons) 186 871 3574 8177 8871 6679 7192 7998Imports (10 3 tons) 196 683 3024 6370 6164 5077 5359 12,431  J.O. Jaber et al. / Energy Policy 36 (2008) 2995–3000 2996  altered. It is expected that annual energy demand will increase atrelatively high rates posing more pressure on the nationaleconomy. As regards the final energy consumption by thetransport sector, including road and air, it has increased byapproximately 168% during the last 25 years, while total finalenergy demand, for the same period, is inflated by about 229%.However, the share of transport sector in the total demanddropped from nearly 45% in 1980 to about 37% in the last 4 years,i.e. 2003–2006. On the other hand, petroleum products’ con-sumption by road transportation increased remarkably: gasolineand diesel consumption in 2006 were 2.6 and 6.4 times the ratesthat occurred in 1980, respectively.In order to compare the quality levels of various energycarriers, e.g. fuels, it is necessary to determine the equivalents of each energy quantity at a particular grade level. This can be doneby using the exergy concept, which overcomes the limitations of the first law of thermodynamics and is based on both the first andsecond laws of thermodynamics (Moran, 1982;Szargut et al., 1988). An exergy analysis can identify the locations of energydegradation and rank them in terms of their significance (Moranand Shapiro, 2000); this knowledge is useful in directing theattention of process-design and research engineers to thosecomponents of the system being analyzed that offer the greatestopportunities for improvement. Furthermore, exergy analysis hasbeen used to analyze energy utilization on the national level, andfor various sectors of the economy, in order to better understandenergy utilization efficiency. This approach was first used byReistad (1975)who applied it to the overall US economy in 1970.Since then, it has been adopted by several researchers for othercountries such as Japan (Wall, 1990), Canada (Rosen, 1992) and Brazil (Schaeffer and Wirtshafter, 1992). A summary of exergyanalyses for different countries can be found inErtesvag (2001).The concept has been also applied to cross-country analysis of someindustrial segments(Ozdogan andArikol,1995;Dinceret al., 2003;Rasul et al, 2005;Oladiran and Meyer, 2007;Utlu and Hepbasli, 2007), residential sector (Saidur et al., 2007a;Al- Ghandoor et al., 2008), transportation sector (Dincer et al.,2004;Utlu and Hepbasli, 2006a;Ji and Chen, 2006;Ediger and Camdali, 2007;Saidur et al., 2007b) and agricultural sector (Dincer et al., 2005;Utlu and Hepbasli, 2006b). The purpose of  this section is to discuss the main mathematical relationsnecessary to conduct energy and exergy analyses in the transpor-tation sector.  2.1. Exergy analysis By describing the use of energy resources in society in terms of exergy, important knowledge and understanding can be gained,and areas identified where large improvements could be obtainedby applying efficient technology, in the sense of more efficientenergy-resource conversions. In principle, the exergy of mattercan be determined by bringing it to the dead state by means of reversible processes. The basic formulas used in exergy analysismodelling for this study are given below.  2.1.1. Exergy of fuel The specific exergy of the fuel at environmental conditionsreduces to chemical exergy, which can be written as   f  ¼ g  f  H   f  , (1)where e  f  is the fuel-specific exergy, g  f  the exergy grade functionand H   f  the higher heating value of the fuel.Table 2shows higherheating value, chemical exergy and fuel exergy grade function of different fuels considered in this study (Szargut et al., 1988;Reistad, 1975;Petchers, 2003;Utlu and Hepbasli, 2007).  2.1.2. Exergy of work From the definition of exergy, mechanical work, W  , is identicalto the physical work exergy, E  W  : E  W  ¼ W  . (2)  2.2. Energy and exergy efficiencies The energy efficiency (first law efficiency) is the ratio of theenergy contained in the useful products of a process to the energycontained in all input streams, while exergyefficiency(second lawefficiency) is the ratio of the exergy contained in the usefulproduct to the exergy contained in all input streams. Energyefficiency ( Z ) and exergy efficiency ( c ) are defined as Z ¼ energy in productstotal energy input    100%, (3) c ¼ exergy in productstotal exergy input    100%, (4)The energy, Z m , and exergy, c m , efficiencies for the fossil fuel-driven kinetic energy production process, which produces shaftwork energy, W  , from fuel, m  f  , can be expressed as follows: Z m ¼ W  = ð m  f  H   f  Þ , (5) c m ¼ E  W  = ð m  f    f  Þ¼ W  = ð m  f  g  f  H   f  Þ¼ Z m = g  f  , (6) 3. Results and discussions The energy consumption trend of Jordan’s transportationsector is increasing every year due to the increasing number of operating vehicles and activities in different sectors of the ARTICLE IN PRESS Residential22%Others17%Transportation37%Industrial24% Fig. 1. Percentage ratios of the final energy sectoral distribution in 2006.  Table 2 Higher heating value, chemical exergy and exergy grade function for different fuels(at 25 1 C and 1atm)Fuel H   f  (kJkg À 1 ) e  f  (kJkg À 1 ) g  f  ( e  f  / H   f  ) Jet fuel 46,117 45,897 0.995Gasoline 47,849 47,394 0.990Diesel oil 39,500 42,265 1.070  J.O. Jaber et al. / Energy Policy 36 (2008) 2995–3000 2997  economy, as shown inFig. 2. It is obvious in this figure thatdiesel and gasoline consumption witnessed a continuousincrease, while annual rate of jet fuel consumption was almostconstant except last 3 years (2004–2006) in which a significantincrease occurred. The latter can be attributed to boomingactivities in tourism in Jordan.Table 3illustrates the use of energy and the shares of the resources in this sector for theyears 1985–2006. As vehicles and aircrafts are not generallyoperated at their rated loads, part load efficiencies are taken as22% and 28% for road and air modes, respectively (Dincer et al.,2004). The weighted mean energy efficiency, Z w , of the transpor-tation sector in a given year is calculated by multiplying theenergy efficiency of each sub-sector mode, Z i , by its share of energy, F  i , and then summing the weighted energy efficiency of each transport mode: Z w ¼ X i ð Z i  F  i Þ = 100, (7)Similarly, weighted mean exergy efficiency, c w , was calculatedby employing an identical approach: c w ¼ X i ð c i  F  i Þ = 100 ¼ X i ðð Z i = g  f  Þ F  i Þ = 100, (8)Sample calculations of the transportation energy and exergyefficiencies for the year 2006 are given below: Z w ¼ðð 22  46 : 5 Þþð 22  35 : 4 Þþð 28  18 : 1 ÞÞ = 100 ¼ 23 : 09%, c w ¼ðð 22 = 0 : 990 Þ 46 : 5 þð 22 = 1 : 070 Þ 35 : 4 þð 28 = 0 : 995 Þ 18 : 1 Þ = 100 ¼ 22 : 70%.The overall mean energy and exergy efficiencies for thetransportation sector between 1985 and 2006 are shown inFig. 3. The average overall energy and exergy efficiencies were23.16% and 22.77%, respectively. A clearly seen inFig. 3, energyefficiencies are higher than the corresponding exergy efficiencies,due to the fact that exergy takes into account the losses due toirreversibilities, notenergy. So, betterenergy utilizationpolicies inthe transportation sector are given by exergy, not energy since itdoes not consider the irreversibilities due to the first law of thermodynamics which refers to the energy conservation law.A close look at obtained values of energy and exergyefficiencies shows a deteriorating trend over years, i.e. a decreas-ing tendency with time, except for certain years. The simpleexplanation for such a slightly wavy pattern is the ignorance of the effect of improving technologies over the studied period andassuming that efficiency of employed systems invariant in orderto simplify calculations. However, there was a slight decrease incalculated efficiencies during the early and late 1990s as well asthe early years of the first decade of the 21st century due todifferent factors. The most important factor was politicalinstability represented by the Gulf wars and US invasion intoIraq, and economic recession in the region. The drop in 1990/1991is due to the 2nd Gulf crisis, which damaged the Jordanianeconomy and led to the complete loss of (i) the Gulf countries’export markets as well as their financial aid, (ii) revenuesfrom transit trades, i.e. goods imported via local ports or through ARTICLE IN PRESS 05,00010,00015,00020,00025,00030,00035,00040,0001985  Year     E  n  e  r  g  y   C  o  n  s  u  m  p   t   i  o  n   (   P   J   ) GasolineDieselJet Fuel 1990 1995 2000 2005 Fig. 2. Annual rate of fuel consumption of the transportation sector during1985–2006.  Table 3 Energy consumption for the transportation sector in JordanYear Total energy (PJ) Road mode Air modeGasoline consumption Diesel consumption Jet fuel consumptionPJ % PJ % PJ %1985 40,696 17,178 42.2 12,173 29.9 11,345 27.91986 39,314 17,273 43.9 12,863 32.7 9177 23.31987 40,068 16,077 40.1 15,032 37.5 8958 22.41988 40,570 16,321 40.2 15,464 38.1 8785 21.71989 44,757 16,527 36.9 17,129 38.3 11,100 24.81990 45,092 17,254 38.3 17,530 38.9 10,307 22.91991 42,287 18,384 43.5 16,418 38.8 7485 17.71992 45,762 20,144 44.0 15,979 34.9 9638 21.11993 47,311 20,814 44.0 16,259 34.4 10,238 21.61994 48,441 21,723 44.8 16,342 33.7 10,376 21.41995 52,251 23,350 44.7 17,787 34.0 11,114 21.31996 52,628 24,690 46.9 17,147 32.6 10,791 20.51997 54,261 25,504 47.0 18,381 33.9 10,376 19.11998 53,172 25,360 47.7 19,235 36.2 8578 16.11999 53,549 26,317 49.1 19,346 36.1 7886 14.72000 57,359 28,901 50.4 20,480 35.7 7978 13.92001 59,076 30,623 51.8 20,382 34.5 8070 13.72002 60,081 31,341 52.2 20,531 34.2 8209 13.72003 62,593 31,963 51.1 20,714 33.1 9915 15.82004 70,883 32,059 45.2 28,309 39.9 10,515 14.82005 74,483 33,351 44.8 26,652 35.8 14,481 19.42006 76,283 35,456 46.5 26,992 35.4 13,835 18.1  J.O. Jaber et al. / Energy Policy 36 (2008) 2995–3000 2998
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