Ministry of Health of Republic of Moldova

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Ministry of Health of Republic of Moldova
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  MINISTRY OF HEALTH OF REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVATHE STATE UNIVERSITY OF MEDICINE AND PHARMACY N.TESTEMITANU MEDICAL PATHOPHYSIOLOGYI volumeGENERAL NOSOLOGYTYPICAL PATHOLOGICAL PROCESSESTheoretical courseEdited by professor  V.Lutan Chisinau 2002CONTENTGENERAL NOSOLOGY1. General characteristic of pathophysiology …………………………………………….. 71.1.   The definition of pathophysiology as a science and didactic discipline………….71.2. The structure and component parts of path physiology…………………………..81.3. The task of pathophysiology………………………………………………….......91.4. The object and methods of study. The method of pathophysiologicalexperiment………………………………………………………………………..101.5. The importance and place of path physiology in the process of medical stuff instruction……………………………………………………………………….11 2.General etiology  2.1. The characteristics of the disease causes……………………………………….2.2. The characteristics of the disease appearance conditions……………………… 1  3.General pathogenesis 3.1. The role of etiological factor in the appearance and progression of the disease.The lesion - as a disease substrate………………………………………………3.2. The role of pathogenic factor in the disease evolution. The cause and effectrelationship. The main link of pathogeneses. The vicious circle……………….3.3. The role of reactivity of organism in the disease development………………… 4. General nosology 4.1. The notion of  health and disease ………………………………………………..4.2. The classification of diseases …………………………………………………….4.3. The periods of development of disease …………………………………………..4.4. The structure of the disease ……………………………………………………… 5. The general sanogenesis ……………………………………………………………… TYPICAL PATHOLOGICAL PROCESSES The cellular pathological typical processes 6. Cell injury 6.1 The cellular membrane lesions …………………………………………………… 6.2 Cell nucleus lesions……………………………………………………………….. 6.3 The endoplasmic reticulum lesions……………………………………………….. 6.4 Mitochondrial lesions……………………………………………………………… 6.5 The lysosomes lesions……………………………………………………………… 6.6 The consequences and general manifestations of cell injury……………………….6.6.1Enzyme- emia…………………………………………………………..6.6.2Hyperpotassemia……………………………………………………….6.6.3Acute phase reaction……………………………………………………6.6.4Fever……………………………………………………………………6.6.5Stress…………………………………………………………………… 7. Cell dystrophy …………………………………………………………………………….. 8. Apoptosis ………………………………………………………………………………… 9. Necrosis ……………………………………………………………………………………  The typical pathological processes in the tissues 10. The cellular dedifferentiation ……………………………………………………………. 11. The impairment of regenerative processes ……………………………………………... 12. Hyperplasia. Hypertrophy ……………………………………………………………….. 13. Atrophy …………………………………………………………………………………… 14. Sclerosis ……………………………………………………………………………………. The typical pathological processes in the organs 2  15. Inflammation ……………………………………………………………………………... 15.1 General characteristic…………………………………………………………... 15.2 The etiology of inflammation …………………………………………………. 15.3 The pathogenesis of inflammation ……………………………………………..15.3.1The alteration in site of inflammation. The primary and secondary alteration……………………………………………………………….15.3.2The mediators of inflammation ………………………………………..15.3.3The vascular reaction in site of inflammation …………………………15.3.4The exudation in site of inflammation …………………………………15.3.5The leucocytes emigration in site of inflammation. Phagocytosis……. 15.4 The proliferation and regeneration in site of inflammation …………………… 15.5 The relationship between the inflammation and reactivity of organism ………. 15.6 The general changes in the organism during the inflammation. The biologicalimportance of inflammatory reaction …………………………………………. 16. The allergic pathological processes ……………………………………………………... 16.1 General characteristics of allergic reactions ………………………………....... 16.2 The etiology of allergy. The characteristics of allergen ………………………. 16.3 The pathogenesis of allergic reactions …………………………………………16.3.1The allergic reaction type I …………………………………………….16.3.2The allergic reaction type II ……………………………………………16.3.3The allergic reaction type III …………………………………………..16.3.4The allergic reaction type IV ……………………………………....…16.3.5The allergic reaction type V ………………………………………….. 16.4 Nonspecific hyper-sensibility ………………………………………………… 16.5  Auto allergic reactions ………………………………………………………… 17. Regional blood circulation disorders …………………………………………………… 17.1  Arterial hyperemia …………………………………………………………….. 17.2 Venous hyperemia …………………………………………………………….. 17.3 Ischemia………………………………………………………………………... 17.4 Embolism………………………………………………………………………. 17.5 Blood stasis…………………………………………………………………….. 17.6 Disorders of blood rheology………………………………………………….... 18. The disorders of capillary – interstitial exchange. The disorders of lymph genesis andlymph dynamics ……………………………………………………………………...18.1. The control of capillary-interstitial exchange…………………………………......18.2 The control of lymph genesis and lymph dynamics……………………………….18.3 The disorders of capillary-interstitial exchange……………………………………18.3.1 Edema……………………………………………………………………....18.4 The disorders of lymph dynamics………………………………………………....  The integrated pathological typical processes 19. Metabolic imbalance ……………………………………………………………………… 19.1 The carbohydrates dyshomeostasis…………………………………………….19.1.1 Hypoglycemia…………………………………………………………….19.1.2 Hyperglycemia……………………………………………………………19.1.3 Hyperketonemia…………………………………………………………. 3  19.1.4Galactosemia…………………………………………………………......19.1.5The consequences of carbohydrates dyshomeostasis………………….....19.2 Lipids dyshomeostasis…………………………………………………………….19.2.1The general etiology of lipids dyshomeostasis………………………......19.2.2Hyperlipidemia…………………………………………………………..19.2.3Hypercholesterolemia……………………………………………………19.2.4Lipid metabolism disorders in organs……………………………………19.3Protein dyshomeostasis…………………………………………………………....19.3.1The general etiology of protein dyshomeostasis………………………....19.3.2The protein dyshomeostasis………………………………………………19.4Starvation………………………………………………………………………….. 20. The electrolyte dyshomeostasis ………………………………………………………….. 20.1 Sodium dyshomeostasis……………………………………………………….. 20.2 Potassium dyshomeostasis…………………………………………………….. 20.3 Calcium dyshomeostasis………………………………………………………. 20.4 Magnesium dyshomeostasis…………………………………………………… 20.5 Magnesium dyshomeostasis……………………………………………………. 20.6 Phosphates dyshomeostasis……………………………………………………. 20.7 Chlorine dyshomeostasis………………………………………………………. 21. Fluids dyshomeostasis …………………………………………………………………….21.1 Intracellular and extracellular fluid volume changes……………………………..21.2 Hyperhydration……………………………………………………………………21.2 Dehydration………………………………………………………………………. 22. Acid-base imbalance ……………………………………………………………………....22.1 Acidosis……………………………………………………………………………22.2 Alcalosis…………………………………………………………………………… 23. General dysoxia ....................................................................................................................23.1 General hypoxia.......................................................................................................23.2 General hyperoxya................................................................................................... 24. Thermic dyshomeostasis ......................................................................................................24.1 Terminal states.........................................................................................................24.2 Biological death.......................................................................................................24.3 Pathogenetic principles of resuscitation.................................................................. 25. The death .............................................................................................................................. 4
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