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Appl Water Sci DOI 10.1007/s13201-013-0126-x ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ground water quality evaluation near mining area and development of heavy metal pollution index Bably Prasad ã Puja Kumari ã Shamima Bano Shweta Kumari ã Received: 14 June 2012 / Accepted: 27 August 2013 Ó The Author(s) 2013. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract Opencast as well as underground coal mining are likely to disturb the underground water table in terms of quantity as well as quality. A
  ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ground water quality evaluation near mining areaand development of heavy metal pollution index Bably Prasad ã Puja Kumari ã Shamima Bano ã Shweta Kumari Received: 14 June 2012/Accepted: 27 August 2013 Ó The Author(s) 2013. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract Opencast as well as underground coal miningare likely to disturb the underground water table in terms of quantity as well as quality. Added to this is the problem of leachates from the large number of industrial waste andoverburden dumps that are in abundance in mining areas,reaching the ground water and adversely affecting itsquality. Enhancement of heavy metals contamination of theground water is one eventuality. In the present work,concentrations of 7 heavy metals have been evaluated at 20important ground water sampling stations at Dhanbadtownship situated very near to Jharia coalfields. The con-centration of heavy metals in general was found to bebelow the permissible levels although concentration of ironand manganese was found above the permissible limits at afew stations. These data have been used for the calculationof heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The HPI of groundwater in total was found to be 6.8860 which is far belowthe critical index limit of 100 pointing to the fact that theground water is not polluted with respect to heavy metals inspite of the prolific growth of mining and allied industrialactivities near the town. Keywords Heavy metal pollution index Á Ground water Á Coal mining Á Heavy metals Introduction Opencast as well as underground coal mining disturb theunderground water table in terms of its level, quantity aswell as quality. Coal mining activity in India started dec-ades back, since then the ground water is getting affected.Along with coal mining, leachates generated from largenumber of industrial waste and overburden dumps that arein abundance around the mining areas, may reach theground water and may adversely affect its quality (Khanet al.2005; Mohammad et al.2010). Enhancement of  heavy metals contamination of the ground water is one of the serious eventualities. Some of the heavy metals con-sidered as micronutrients become detrimental to humanhealth when their concentrations exceed the permissiblelevel of drinking water (Prasanna et al.2011). Thus,evaluation of heavy metals in ground water that is used fordrinking purpose is of great significance from the humanhealth point of view. In the present study, seven importantheavy metals such as iron, manganese, lead, copper, cad-mium, chromium and zinc have been evaluated in 20ground water samples, obtained from different places of Dhanbad township which is located very near to Jhariacoalfields, for 3 different seasons of the year 2011 andheavy metal pollution index has been evaluated to knowthe present status of overall pollution level of ground waterwith respect to heavy metals.The pollution parameters monitored for the assessmentof the quality of any system give an idea of the pollutionwith reference to that particular parameter only. Qualityindices are useful in getting a composite influence of allparameters of overall pollution. Quality indices make useof a series of judgements into a reproducible form andcompile all the pollution parameters into some easyapproach. Several methods have been proposed to develop B. Prasad ( & )Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Barwa Road,Dhanbad 826015, Jharkhand, Indiae-mail: drbablyprasad@yahoo.comP. Kumari Á S. Bano Á S. KumariPatna A.N. College, Patna, Bihar, India  123 Appl Water SciDOI 10.1007/s13201-013-0126-x  quality indices for estimation of characteristics of surfacewater with water quality parameters (Horton1965; Lohaniand Todno1984; Tiwary and Mishra1985; Joung et al. 1979; Landwehr1979; Nishidia et al.1982). In past years, the authors (Prasad and Jaiprakas1999; Prasad and Bose2001; Prasad and Kumari2008; Prasad and Mondal2008) have evaluated the heavy metals pollution in ground waterand evaluated heavy metal pollution index (HPI).Indexing approachThe HPI represents the total quality of water with respect toheavy metals. The proposed HPI is based on weightedarithmetic quality mean method and is developed on twobasic steps: firstly, by establishing a rating scale for eachselected parameter giving weightage to selected parameter(heavy metal) and, secondly, by selecting the pollutionparameter on which the index is to be based. Rating systemis an arbitrary value between 0 and 1, and its selectiondepends upon the importance of individual quality con-siderations in a comparative way, or it can be assessed bymaking values inversely proportional to the recommendedstandard for the corresponding parameter (Horton1965;Mohan et al.1996). In the present formula, unit weightage( W  i ) is taken as value inversely proportional to therecommended standard ( S  i ) of the corresponding parame-ter. Iron, manganese, lead, copper, cadmium, chromiumand zinc have been monitored for the model index appli-cation. The HPI model proposed is given by Mohan et al.(1996)HPI ¼ P ni ¼ 1 W  i Q i P ni ¼ 1 W  i ð 1 Þ where Q i is the sub index of the i th parameter. W  i is the unitweightage of  i th parameter and n is the number of parameters considered.The sub index ( Q i ) of the parameter is calculated by Q i ¼ X ni ¼ 1 f  M  i ðÀÞ  I  i gð S  i À I  i Þ 100 ð 2 Þ where, M  i is the monitored value of heavy metal of  i thparameter, I  i is the ideal value of  i th parameter, S  i is thestandard value of  i th parameter. The sign ( - ) indicates thenumerical difference of the two values, ignoring the alge-braic sign.Generally, pollution indices are estimated for any spe-cific use of the water. The proposed index is intended forthe purpose of drinking water. The critical pollution indexvalue for drinking water is 100. Fig. 1 Map showing watersampling points in Dhanbadtownship areaAppl Water Sci  123  Materials and methods Study areaDhanbad, one of the biggest coal belts of India, is activelyassociated in mining activities for more than a century. Theoldest geological formations of the Dhanbad district arecomposed of crystalline metamorphic rocks which belongto Dharwar system in Indian stratigraphy. In theseformations are found rock types of both sedimentary andigneous origin. Course gritty soil is predominant inDhanbad coal basin. This type of soil mixed with bigfragment of rocks is formed from the weathering of peg-matites, quartz and conglomeratic sandstones. About 200coal mines of Jharia coal fields, which produce primecoking coal, are located around Dhanbad township. Thelarge scale industries like coal washing and coke makingare located nearby. There is drinking water shortage in the Table 1 Total heavy metals concentration (ppm) in ground water of Dhanbad townSl no. Analysis of copper meanconcentration 0.0084Analysis of manganese meanconcentration 0.1662Analysis of lead meanconcentration 0.0038Analysis of iron meanconcentration 0.5416SummerseasonRainyseasonWinterseasonSummerseasonRainyseasonWinterseasonSummerseasonRainyseasonWinterseasonSummerseasonRainyseasonWinterseason1. Openwell0.00288 0.00128 0.0020 0.00426 0.00334 0.0023 0.00546 BDL 0.0041 0.06662 0.06868 0.02692. Openwell0.00376 0.01016 0.0035 0.24986 0.07062 0.0833 0.00276 BDL 0.0002 0.02406 0.07568 0.02583. Openwell0.00386 0.00292 0.0032 0.03598 0.0943 0.0825 0.04874 0.00866 BDL 0.09322 0.04428 0.02114. Handpump0.03268 0.00854 0.0069 0.01146 0.03292 0.0475 BDL 0.02612 BDL 0.4181 0.1193 1.26075. Handpump0.00532 0.00706 0.0052 0.03468 0.10076 0.0515 0.00258 0.00194 0.0002 1.39866 0.11532 0.12196. Handpump0.00236 0.00256 0.0035 0.37404 0.28494 0.3351 BDL 0.00164 0.0005 0.43802 0.18056 0.09287. Handpump0.01072 0.00728 0.0060 0.1107 0.12938 0.1079 0.0009 0.011 0.0008 0.38542 0.342 0.11488. Handpump0.00904 0.00744 0.0048 0.0077 0.00844 0.0315 BDL 0.002 0.0005 1.667 0.80368 0.45489. Handpump0.01428 0.00642 0.0341 0.19608 0.20364 0.1758 BDL 0.00108 0.0130 1.98606 0.86664 5.574410. Handpump0.00128 0.0082 0.0052 0.00616 0.8954 0.0067 BDL 0.00404 0.0023 BDL 0.11726 0.001111. Handpump0.03148 0.00874 0.0258 1.24586 1.6652 1.6060 0.00154 0.0097 0.0002 0.0793 0.7385 0.385612. Handpump0.00164 0.00458 0.0123 0.00024 0.05184 0.0903 BDL 0.01198 0.0023 BDL 0.25904 0.407513. Handpump0.00594 0.0064 0.0068 0.02932 0.05458 0.0444 BDL 0.00194 BDL 0.164898 0.4932 0.182614. Handpump0.00292 0.00488 0.0047 0.09238 0.13662 0.0468 0.00038 0.01482 0.0050 0.0011 0.16778 0.214215. Handpump0.00818 0.0354 0.0043 0.00426 0.16624 0.1410 0.00142 0.00766 0.0015 0.55062 0.22474 0.143616. Handpump0.00582 0.0122 0.0153 0.00928 0.00934 0.0139 0.00044 0.0055 0.0046 0.68896 0.32732 2.600017. Handpump0.01396 0.00546 0.0087 0.01524 0.024 0.0216 0.00212 0.00048 0.0016 2.45064 0.4402 1.593218. Handpump0.0023 0.00232 0.0030 0.16788 0.18452 0.0421 BDL 0.00128 0.0017 0.37826 0.25584 0.316619. Handpump0.00782 0.00326 0.0067 0.1011 0.07128 0.0242 BDL 0.01136 0.0011 0.81092 0.66894 0.446020.Openwell0.00354 0.00622 0.0255 0.00848 0.06432 0.0637 0.00044 0.00084 0.0036 0.12258 0.35644 0.1258Appl Water Sci  123  township, especially in summer season. Population here ismainly depended on ground water sources. Taking all theseinto consideration, twenty ground water sampling pointshave been selected, which covered almost entire townshipof Dhanbad (Fig.1).Sampling and analysisOut of 20, 4 samples have been taken from open well and16 from hand pumps. The depth of open wells was25–30 m and that of hand pumps 100–120 m. Samplinghas been done for the month of May (summer) 2011,August (rainy) 2011 and December (winter) 2011 to get anidea of the seasonal variation of the heavy metal concen-trations. All samples have been digested, concentrated andprepared for analysis by atomic absorption spectropho-tometer (AAS) methods using model: M Series ThermoFisher (Arnold et al.1992). The digestion and concentra-tion of water sample was carried out by reducing the vol-ume of 1,000–50 ml by slow heating on a hot plate withaddition of few millilitres of concentrated nitric acid. Slowheating was done to avoid metal loss due to evaporation.Analysis of these metals were performed by calibrating theinstrument with different dilutions of standard solutionsand analysis of Cu, Mn, Pb, Fe, Cd, Zn and Cr wasperformed at 324.7, 279.5, 217.0, 248.3, 228.8, 213.9 and357.9 nm, respectively. Three replicates were run for eachsample and the instrument was recalibrated after analysisof ten samples. The detection limit of AAS was well withinthe range for all elements analysed. Over all precisionexpressed as percent relative standard deviation wasobtained for all the samples. Because the samples wereconcentrated during digestion, the result obtained wascalculated to get the actual concentration. Result and discussion The evaluation of concentration of seven heavy metalssuch as Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Zn in three seasons inground water of Dhanbad town is listed in Tables1and2. The mean concentrations of Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Znwere 0.5416, 0.1662, 0.0038, 0.0084, 0.00041, 0.0072 and0.2116 mg/l, respectively, which include total twentyground water sampling points for three seasons of the year.From the results, it has been observed that concentrationsof heavy metals such as Cu, Pb, and Zn were well belowthe permissible limits of Indian drinking water standard(IS: 10500). The concentration of Mn and Fe has beenfound more than the highest desirable limit of drinking Table 2 Total heavy metal concentration (ppm) in ground water of Dhanbad townSl no. Analysis of cadmium mean concentration0.00041Analysis of zinc mean concentration0.2116Analysis of chromium mean concentration0.0072SummerseasonRainyseasonWinterseasonSummerseasonRainyseasonWinterseasonSummerseasonRainyseasonWinterseason1. Open well BDL BDL BDL 0.01518 0.02224 0.0152 BDL BDL BDL2. Open well 0.0001 0.002 0.0004 0.09618 0.07168 0.1080 BDL BDL 0.00063. Open well BDL BDL 0.0002 BDL 0.14132 0.1085 BDL BDL 0.00234. Hand pump BDL 0.00024 BDL 0.22426 0.14774 0.0988 0.0041 0.00708 0.00545. Hand pump 0.00084 BDL BDL 0.17224 0.19492 0.0091 BDL 0.02488 0.00626. Hand pump BDL 0.00562 BDL 0.01044 0.02196 0.0377 BDL 0.06444 0.00227. Hand pump 0.00194 BDL BDL 0.02616 0.03656 0.0198 BDL 0.0198 0.00378. Hand pump BDL 0.00066 BDL 0.28182 0.05214 0.0322 0.00154 0.01022 0.00449. Hand pump BDL 0.00238 0.0003 0.01904 0.02052 1.5246 0.00028 0.01888 0.009410. Hand pump 0.00156 BDL BDL 0.0376 2.7842 0.0545 BDL 0.01568 0.002111. Hand pump BDL 0.00078 0.0002 0.0972 0.0386 0.0746 0.0066 0.04586 0.013112. Hand pump BDL 0.00022 BDL BDL 0.9836 0.4922 0.0012 0.04424 0.005713. Hand pump 0.00484 BDL BDL 0.03118 0.03474 0.0207 0.00264 0.02152 0.004614. Hand pump BDL 0.00004 BDL 0.03238 0.0362 0.0241 0.00362 0.01262 0.002915. Hand pump 0.0043 0.00068 BDL 0.07752 1.9594 0.1496 0.00158 BDL 0.005616. Hand pump BDL 0.0004 BDL 0.17704 0.14574 0.4326 0.00118 0.00282 0.005717. Hand pump BDL 0.00004 BDL 0.0227 0.02808 0.1496 0.00244 0.00992 0.005218. Hand pump BDL BDL BDL 0.0687 0.02 0.0152 0.00118 0.00904 0.003219. Hand pump BDL BDL BDL 0.46866 0.09144 0.1377 0.00228 0.0047 0.006220.Open well BDL BDL BDL 0.07846 0.04796 0.3769 0.00286 0.00034 0.0024Appl Water Sci  123
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