Principles of Good Governance

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1. Principles of GoodGovernanceIn the family, economy, civil society,education, and religionUniversal Peace Federation 2. What Is the Purpose of Government? 3. What Do…
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  • 1. Principles of GoodGovernanceIn the family, economy, civil society,education, and religionUniversal Peace Federation
  • 2. What Is the Purpose of Government?
  • 3. What Do All People Want?In view of the fact that all knowledge andevery pursuit aims at some good, what isthe highest of all goods achievable byaction? Verbally there is very generalagreement; for both the general run ofmen and people of superior refinement it ishappiness; they identify living well anddoing well with being happy. Aristotle
  • 4. People Are Social Beings."It would be strange to representthe supremely happy man as arecluse. No one would choose tohave all possible good things onthe condition that he must enjoythem alone; for man is a socialbeing and one whose nature is tolive with others; accordingly thehappy man must have society, forthen he has everything that isnaturally good." Aristotle
  • 5. How Is Happiness Attained?When our desires are fulfilled. For example: Hunger > eating food > satisfaction Missing someone > seeing them > warm relationships
  • 6. Cautions Some desires are unrealistic. Some desires are immature. Some desires are excessive. Some desires are wrong.Therefore, focusing only on desires leads to unhappiness.
  • 7. Religions Recognize This. Christianity – “Wretched man that I am!” (St. Paul) Judaism – “The heart is corrupt.” (Jeremiah) Buddhism - All suffering is caused by craving and focusing on extinguishing cravings.Paradox: The fulfillment of desire can lead to both happiness and suffering.Therefore, desires need to be channeled and controlled so their fulfillment brings happiness and not suffering.
  • 8. Core Desires To eat, sleep, and have a home To experience love To achieve social position or authority To gain knowledge and skills To worship
  • 9. Supportive Structures to Satisfy Desires SUPPORTIVE SOCIALDESIRE SYSTEMTo experience love FamilyFor material things EconomyFor position and authority Civil society, politicsFor knowledge and skills EducationTo worship Religion
  • 10. Core Purposes of GovernmentDefense To protect a country from invasion which would destroy people’s way of life and prevent them from being happyJustice To maintain the laws necessary to create a realm of freedom in which people can live a moral and meaningful life and thus be happy and fulfilled
  • 11. The Family SystemFulfiling the desire for loving relationships
  • 12. Family as the Locus of Meaning Dwelling place of God: “The family that prays together stays together.” Cultivating the spiritual life creates hope for the future. Enduring relationships give meaning. Family offers reasons Shabbat prayer to live and multiply.
  • 13. Family as the School of Love Place for love between husband and wife Reproduction and love between parents and children Socialization and education into the manners, customs, and traditions of one’s community Transmission of culture and the good way of life
  • 14. Family as the Cradle of Culture“By far the most importantchannel of transmission of cultureremains the family; and whenfamily life fails to play its part, wemust expect our culture todeteriorate.” T.S. Elliot: Notes towards the Definition of Culture, 1948
  • 15. Family as a Key Economic Unit Members work together to create wealth to support the family and community. Develops a sense of responsible ownership. Encourages creativity. Teaches a culture of giving and sharing.
  • 16. Family as the Ground of Being Love Life Lineage
  • 17. Crimes against the Family Adultery: the chief cause of divorce and family break up Unmarried mothers: every child has the right to a mother and a father Child neglect and abuse (especially common among step-families) Neglect of parents and grandparentsCaution: Government should not supplant the role of the family in education, health, welfare, and finances.
  • 18. Helpful Government Policies Laws that protect family and marriage Tax system that favors marriage and children Inheritance laws that favor the build up of generational wealth and responsibilityCautions: Social security system should not subsidize unmarried mothers. Social services are best provided by the voluntary sector.
  • 19. The Family and SocietyFamilial collapse leads to social collapse.Society is more than families; it includes social structuresand institutionsDistinctions between family and society: The family is based on affection and forgiveness. Society based on justice.Cautions: Narrow affection in social relations > corruption(nepotism) Legalism in family relations > can hurt people’s hearts
  • 20. The Family and SocietySociety is an expansion of the family.However, affection declines as distance increases.Cautions: what happens when resources are scarce? People are less generous, especially to those whoare not part of their family. Scarcity of desirable goods leads to destructiveconflict.Therefore, a framework of commonly accepted rulesis needed.
  • 21. The Economic SystemFulfilling the desire for goods to be able to live a comfortable life
  • 22. Respect for OwnershipRelationship between people and possessions: Ownership of property as a social convention Resolves disputes Ensures stability of possession
  • 23. Transfer of Ownership Rights over goods can be transferred by consent. Can give things to someone. Can sell things to someone. Markets: Where ownership is transferred by exchange Origin of money: Convenient unit of exchange Division of labor and specialization Cautions: Freedom should be accompanied by responsibility. Freedom should be exercised within the bounds of the law.
  • 24. Performance of Promises “My word is my bond.” Society as moral Self-limitation - don’t be greedy Natural, rational expectations Trust people including strangers Enables free trade between strangers
  • 25. Economic Crimes Theft, robbery, stealing, fraud Denial of private property - nationalization without compensation Unreasonable and punitive taxation Reneging on agreements - not paying salaries or invoices Breaking promises
  • 26. Helpful Government Policies Establish and maintain a simple legal framework for the free market. Set up laws regarding contracts and guarding against theft and fraud. Maintain an independent judiciary. Keep central banks independent. Limit taxation. Minimize bureaucracy and corruption.
  • 27. 2 Incompatible SyndromesCommercial moral syndrome Guardian moral syndrome Shun force  Shun trading Voluntary agreements  Exert prowess Be honest  Be obedient and disciplined Collaborate with strangers  Be exclusive Compete  Respect hierarchy Respect contracts  Be loyal Use initiative and enterprise  Adhere to tradition Be open to novelty  Treasure honor Be efficient  Be ostentatious Promote convenience  Enjoy leisure Dissent for the task  Deceive to achieve tasks Invest for productivity  Take vengeance Be industrious  Show fortitude Be thrifty  Dispense largesse Be optimistic  Be fatalistic
  • 28. Civil SocietyFulfiling the desire for social position and power
  • 29. Civil Society Offers opportunities for people to make a difference and offer a unique contribution. Includes many types of institutions: Politics, businesses, charities, local government, religion, schools, hospitals, etc. Abides by laws. Allows for freedom of speech, movement, living, career, Honors people based on merit.
  • 30. Crimes against Civil Society Achieving position illegitimately Murder, coups Nepotism Cronyism Corruption, bribery Discrimination in the public sector Totalitarianism
  • 31. Helpful Government Policies Maintain an independent judiciary. Maintain roads, electricity, water supply, sewers. Provide for national defense. Offer a safety net.Caution: Government should protect people’s way of life but not engage in social engineering.
  • 32. Educational systemFulfilling the desire for knowledge and understanding of the world we inhabit
  • 33. What Is Education? Transaction between the generations that initiates children into the world which they are to inhabit Transfer of knowledge and skills Most fundamentally, learning to live humanly
  • 34. Two Types of EducationEducation at home:  How to behave  How to live a spiritual life  How to think, but not what to think or believe  Skills such as swimming, gardening, house maintenance, money managementEducation at school:  History, literature, language, religion  Specialized knowledge and skills  More complex thinking
  • 35. Educational Crimes Failing to pass on the wisdom of the ages Dumbing down information Indoctrinating students Graduating students who lack qualifications and skills Giving information without values, purpose, or meaning
  • 36. Helpful Government Policies Independent and self-governing, not controlled by the state Financed by fees, scholarships, vouchers Free to specialize and set curricula Not for indoctrination - religious or political Prepare students for exams set by universities and other professional bodies
  • 37. ReligionTo satisfy the desire to worship
  • 38. Realm of Religion Acknowledgement of dependence on a superhuman being expressed through rituals and worship Concern with questions of meaning of life, right and wrong behavior, salvation Rituals to give meaning and sanctification to rites of passage such as marriage
  • 39. Religious Crimes Idolatry Mistaking the relative for the absolute Sectarianism Bigotry Militant fundamentalism
  • 40. Helpful Government Policies Allow religious freedom. Enable religious communities to be involved in law making, education, and values.
  • 41. SummaryHuman desire Supportive Crimes in this social system realmExperience love Family AdulteryMaterial things Economy StealingSocial position and Civil society MurderauthorityKnowledge and skills Education Falsehood, indoctrinationWorship Religion Idolatry
  • 42. Principles of Good Governance Related to Spiritual PrinciplesSociety of owners  Blessing of dominion over creation  Do not steal/misuse public moneySociety of market relationships  Blessing of ethical relationships  Do not have immoral sexual relationsSociety as a moral realm  Blessing of mind/body unity  Do not hurt a person’s heart
  • 43. Adapted by Joy Pople from a presentation by William HainesUniversal Peace Federationwww.upf.org
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