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1 Selected Annotated Bibliography Primary Sources 2 Selected Bibliography Primary Sources Personal Interviews Grotzer, Tina A. Interview with Grotzer. Personal Correspondence. 27 Nov. 2012. Grotzer, Professor of Education, expressed how Sputnik was both a positive [and] negative in American education. Grotzer admitted that even though [Sputnik] came from a competitive response, she included that it also brought considerable resources into science education and enabled the development o
  Selected AnnotatedBibliographyPrimary Sources 1  Selected BibliographyPrimary SourcesPersonal Interviews Grotzer, Tina A. Interview with Grotzer. Personal Correspondence.27 Nov. 2012.Grotzer, Professor of Education, expressed how Sputnik was both a positive [and] negative in American education. Grotzeradmitted that even though [Sputnik] came from a competitiveresponse, she included that it also brought considerableresources into science education and enabled the development of new curriculum and studies on learning. Furthermore, educational reforms that resulted from Sputnik included morelab-based approaches [and] the activity-oriented approaches toscience that we see in classrooms today , which involve both the minds on and hands on of students. In this interview, Grotzerprovided us with valuable information about the impact Sputnikhad on American education and how it lead to reformations in itscurriculum.Hubbard, G. Scott. Interview with Professor Hubbard.  Telephone interview. 20 Dec. 2012.Hubbard, a professor at Stanford University and being nine yearsold when Sputnik went up , expressed why [Sputnik] wassomething that caught a lot of people in most of the [U.S.] bysurprise and how it impacted the American S.T.E.M education. As a child during the Cold War, he admitted that Americans at thetime were convinced that the Soviets [were] really not verysophisticated when it came to more advanced technologicaloperations such as Sputnik, which contributed to their hysteriawhen its launching came about. But, most importantly, he helpedus by expressing how its aftermath had a positive historicalturning point for American S.T.E.M education.Logsdon, John. “Interview with Professor Logsdon.” Telephone interview. 7 Feb. 2013.Logsdon, a professor at George Washington University expressedto us that Sputnik symbolized to the world “that the Soviet Unionwas a major technological power…one that had to be taken veryseriously.” With his firsthand accounts and experience withSputnik, we as a group were able to grasp the urgency of thesituation. Not only did we have to recognize Sputnik as a 2  technological advancement like no other, but we had to face thepossibility that it held intense missile capability Selected BibliographyPrimary SourcesArchival Footage President Eisenhower's State of the Union Address . Dwight D.Eisenhower, 1958. . Web.President Eisenhower delivered this message to Congress with thepurpose of [outlining] the measures that [could've given] theAmerican people a confidence in their own security. Recognizingthat the threat faced by Americans was increased by advancingindustrial, military, and scientific establishment , not just militarystrength,” Eisenhower asked Congress [to] enact necessarylegislation to [improve] industry, education and research, andscience. by [investing] about a billion dollars over a four yearperiod. This first hand account gave us a better insight of howafter the launching of Sputnik, Eisenhower and the United Statesas a whole preferred improving science education over militarystrength as a way to improve and preserve national security. Sputnik: First Space Sattelite . NBC. 07 Oct. 1957. .National Broadcasting Company. Web.Not long after the launching of Sputnik, American's were madeaware of the events in Moscow. It was within three days that anews segment was broadcast on NBC that showed the technicalaspects of the launch, including those about the R-7 Semyorkamissile, its weight estimated 50 tons, and Sputnik 1, a 23-inchmetal sphere. This newsreel provided us with details on how themedia portrayed Sputnik to the general public [ one of the greatscientific feats of the age ], and also the fact that they were ableto hear the sounds that it transmitted. 3  Selected BibliographyPrimary SourcesLetters Dwight D. Eisenhower: Letter to Nikolai Bulganin, Chairman, Council of Ministers, U.S.S.R. January 13, 1958. Online by Gerhard Petersand John T. Woolley. The American Presidency Project. Realizing that the Soviet Union [was] no longer weak ,Eisenhower sent a letter to Bulganin, with which he discussedpeace proposals. In his letter, Eisenhower agreed that for the sakeof [maintaining] international peace and security , both theSoviet Union and United States had to stop the mountingproduction [and testing] of new types of weapons , especiallynuclear weapons. Furthermore, Eisenhower proposed that outerspace should only be used for peaceful purposes rather than military purposes to prevent the human race [from destroying]itself. Eisenhower's letter helped us understand his thoughts andopinions about the usage of military weapons and spacetechnology after the launching of Sputnik.Dwight D. Eisenhower: Statement by the President on the AgreementWith the Soviet Union Covering Cultural, Technical, andEducational Exchanges. January 27, 1958. EisenhowerPresidential Library, Abilene, KS. Three months after the launching of Sputnik, President Eisenhowerproposed a temporary educational Federal program to Congressto ensure national security . Such program would lead to the expansion of other programs (especially the National ScienceFoundation) and give special attention to education in [math,]science, and engineering as a way of encouraging able studentsto consider science [and engineering] as career. Eisenhower'sproposal helped us understand how this reaction shifted Americaneducation in terms of improving both its science and math fieldsand allowing more educational opportunities for students. 4
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