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TEACHING PRONUNCIATION . ELİF KALINTAŞ AYŞEGÜL DÖNMEZ. CONTENTS. What is pronunciation ? What is pronunciation teaching ? Why to teach pronunciation ? What to know to teach ? Pronunciation issues Perfection versus intelligibility Problems that can students encounter
  • What is pronunciation?
  • What is pronunciationteaching?
  • Whytoteachpronunciation?
  • Whattoknowtoteach?
  • Pronunciationissues
  • Perfectionversusintelligibility
  • Problemsthat can studentsencounter --Whatstudents can hear --Theintonation problem
  • Whentoteachpronunciation?
  • Differentmaterialsandsometeachingtechniques
  • Howtoteachpronunciation?
  • Stepsforteachingpronunciation.
  • What is pronunciation?
  • The Production of Significant Sound.
  • Significant because
  • it is used as part of a code of a particular language
  • it is used to achieve meaning in contexts of use.
  • Auditory Phonetics = The perception of the sound.
  • Articulatory Phonetics = The production of the sound.
  • What is pronunciationteaching?
  • Pronunciationteaching not onlymakesstudentsaware of differentsoundsandsoundfeatures
  • can alsoimprovetheirspeakingimmeasurably
  • Showingwheretheyaremade in themouth ,makingstudentsaware of wherewordsshould be stressed.
  • Whyteach? 4 major reasons to teach pronunciation ( Morley, 1999)
  • functional intelligibility
  • functional communicability
  • increased self-confidence
  • speech monitoring abilities
  • Teachpronunciationtobuild on… Functional intelligibility:Spoken English in which an accent is not distracting to the listener. Functional communicability: learner’ s ability to function successfully within the specific communicative situations. Self-confidence:Dependent on the ones mentioned above. Speech monitoring abilities:Good learners listen to the input and try to imitate it. Problemsthatstudents can encounter
  • It is veryoverlookedbyteachers,
  • It is overlooked in a lot of coursebooks – included in verysmallchunks, soteachersdon’tsee it as important.
  • Difficulttoteach in multilingualclasses
  • Ifit’s not tested, it’s not important.
  • Someteachersthink it iseasy, but it actuallyneeds a lot of work.
  • It’softenleftuntillater
  • Realism is required: perfection is unnecessaryandlargelyunobtainable.
  • Studentsmaybelievethere’s no systemtoEnglishpronunciation
  • Whattoteach?
  • Individualsounds (perhapsusingthe IPA – seebelow)
  • Soundlinking
  • Connectedspeech (perhapsthroughsongs)
  • Weakforms (schwa)
  • Voice – getthemtoimitateEnglishspeakersmispronouncingtheir L1 – givesthem a feelforsounds / rhythm
  • Syllablestress - highlightlength, pitch, loudness, & vowelclarity
  • Intonation
  • Minimal pairs
  • Chunking
  • Pausing
  • Rhythm
  • Awareness of varieties of English.
  • Awarenessandrecognition – productionwillcomelater
  • Whentoteachprounciation Harmer (2000) suggests 4 alternatives
  • Wholelessons(prepneeded)
  • Discreetslots(prepneeded)
  • Short, separatedbits of pron. Work
  • Integratedphases(prepneeded)
  • Inanylesson (liistning, grammaring, writngetc. ) esp. Whenyoudealwithforms, youmaydrawsts.’ attentitontopron.
  • Opportunisticteaching
  • Esp. duringgrammar, voc. Teaching it seemsnaturaltoallocate time topron. teaching
  • Pronunciationissues
  • Teachersgivemoreimportancetostudygrammarandvocabulary
  • Teachersgetstudentstostudylisteningandreading
  • Teachersseethatpronunciationteachingwillonlymakethingsworse
  • Teachersignorebenefits of pronunciationteaching
  • Actually;Pronunciationteaching(a)
  • makesstudentsaware of differentsoundsandtheirfeatures
  • improvestheirspeakingimmeasurably
  • allowsstudentstogetoverseriousintelligibilityproblems
  • concentrates on sounds ,showingwheretheyaremade in themouth ,makingstudensaware of wherewordsshould be stressed
  • So;
  • ReceognizingallthesethingsgivethemextrainformationaboutspokenEnglishandhelpthemachievethegoal of improvedcomprehensionandintelligibility
  • Beingmadeaware of pronunciationissueswill be immensebenefit not onlytotheirownproduction but alsototheirownunderstanding of spokenEnglish.
  • Perfectionversusintelligibility
  • Perfectiondepends very much on stsattitude to how they speak and how well they hear.
  • manyculturalfactorsforperfection
  • fortheseculturalfactors ; languageteachersconsiderintelligiblity as the prime goal of pronunciationteaching..
  • Sowhat is intelligibility in teachingpronunciation?
  • Thestudentsshould be abletousepronunciationwhich is goodenoughforthemto be alwaysunderstood.
  • Whenbeingintelligibility a goal ;
  • it suggestthatsomepronunciationfeaturesaremoreimportantthanothers; somesounds ,stressingwordsandphrasesandintonation.
  • ‘Realism is required: perfection is unnecessary and largely unobtainable.’
  • Whatstudents can hear? WhilelearningEnglish, ifstudentshavesimilarsounds in theirmothertongue, theymay be confusedandmisleaded.
  • Theintonation problem
  • Intonation is a problem or not?
  • Manypeopleandteachers;
  • find intonation difficult to hear 'tunes' or identify the rising and falling tones.
  • --givingopportunutiesbyusingtape
  • --orthroughthewayweourselves model them.
  • The key to successful pronunciation teaching,not much getting students produce correct sounds,but listen and notice how english is spoken.
  • --Noticing is soimportantforpronunciationteaching.
  • Theuse of differentmaterialsandsometeachingtechniques
  • Whyweusethephoenemicalphabet ?
  • Aware of thedifferentphoenemes
  • Dictionaries
  • Forpronunciationgamesandtasks
  • But youshould not forgetthatyou r students’ proficiencylevel is importantwhendecidingtouse of phoenemicalphabet.
  • How can weusevocal organ chart?
  • ıt is usedforshowinghowwe can producesounds
  • So; studentsunderstandbetter
  • Helptonoticing
  • Minimal pairs;
  • Whatare minimal pairs?
  • pairs of wordsthathaveonephonemicchangebetweenthem.
  • How can weusethem in ourlessons?
  • Let’slook at theexample; Shipandchip Contrastingtwosounds is very popular way of gettingstudentstoconcentrate on specificaspects of pronunciation Sounds/∫/ and /t∫/ Some Teaching Techniques <<Contextualizedminimal pairs: Sounds: Thispenleaks. Then, don’ t writewith it. Thispanleaks. Then, don’ t cookwith it. Stress: Is it a lemontree? No, an orangetree. Is it elementary? No, it’ s advanced. c. CartoonsandDrawings d. GadgetsandProps Rubberband, dices, kazoos, cuisenairerods e. Rhymes, poetry, jokes Jazzchantsetc f. Drama g. Handsand body Clappingetc. Moving Imitatingthe body movements, gesturesandfacialexpressions of anotherperson (face-to-face, or on video) Howtoteachpronunciation?
  • Integrate it into your lessons as much as possible
  • Start with little steps, and build from there.
  • Model the shape of the mouth, and ask them to think about their tongues and lips!
  • Combine it withlistening.
  • Recordyourstudents’ voiceanduse it tofocus on pronunciationissues.
  • Usegames.
  • Mouthexercises – SS thinkit’sfuntolaugh at theteacher
  • Usedifferentcoloured pens, dots, connections, arrows…
  • Exaggeratepronunciation
  • Listen totheradioandimitatetheaccent
  • Exaggeratesounds – it’sfun, and SS can feelthedifferencebetweenthem
  • Cuisenairerodsfabulousforteachingword/sentencestress, intonationetc
  • Thestepsforteachingpronunciation(a)
  • Planningstage
  • Teachingstage
  • Planningstage (a)
  • 3 questionsthatyoushould ask;
  • Is it important? Ifyes;
  • Collecttheinformationaboutthefeatureyouwanttoteach
  • Spot thepotentialproblems of Turkishlearners
  • Teachingstage; €
  • Description/analysis/ contrast
  • Listeningdiscrimination
  • Controlledpractice (Teachercentered ,accuracy)
  • Semi-controlled(Guidedpractice)
  • Freepractice (Communicativepractice)
  • Description/ analysis/contrast Description
  • T. presents a feature showing where and how it occurs(sounds) how it occurs(stressandintonation)
  • T. might use charts, vocal organ diagram, gadgets, hands etc.
  • T. might use inductive or deductive rule presentation.
  • Analysis
  • Sounds
  • Spelling
  • Symbol:Phonemicsymbols
  • Examples
  • Intonation
  • Falling-risingintonation
  • Symbol: Arrows
  • Examples
  • Stress
  • Syllable,
  • Symbol: Emphasis
  • Examples
  • Contrast
  • T. introducestheconfusingsound, stress/intonationpattern
  • Drawsts’sattentiontospelling/pronundifferences
  • Moreexamplesareprovided
  • Listening discrimination
  • Minimal pair discrimination exercises # same /different # circle the one that you hear # circle the odd one out # sentence and find the one t. pronounces
  • Otherdiscriminationactivs. #countthewordsthatcontainthespecificfeatureetc.
  • Controlled practice
  • Sts.’ focus is almost completely on form # whole-class and T-SS and more pair-work activities # choral reading # poems, skits, rhymes, dialogues, dramatic monologues #tracking
  • Semi-controlled(Guided) practice
  • Sts.’ focus is not only on form but also meaning, grammar, communication
  • More pair-work
  • Freer practice (communicative )
  • T. should give a clear goal like “ While doing this drama scene pay special attention to contractions) # Role-plays, debates, interviews, simulations, drama scenes etc.
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