The Arts and Culture of the Classical Civilizations

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The Arts and Culture of the Classical Civilizations By: Virginia Castillo, Alina Garza, Cristina Martinez, & Charmein Reyes Classical Chinese Engineering In the 1st…
The Arts and Culture of the Classical Civilizations By: Virginia Castillo, Alina Garza, Cristina Martinez, & Charmein Reyes Classical Chinese Engineering
  • In the 1st century BC, the chain pump was invented. The chain pump allows water to be pumped from lower to higher altitudes. These are used for irrigation in farming.
  • In the 2nd century BC, refining iron and steel have already been invented by the Chinese, in contrast with Henry Bessemer, who had claimed to have discovered refining iron and steel.
  • In the 1st century AD, the deep drilling technique was invented by the Chinese to find natural gases. This technique can drill holes up to 48,000 feet.
  • Classical Chinese Culture
  • Chinese culture faceted the development of the Confucian system.
  • The Confucian list of virtues emphasized respect for one’s social elder. (e.g. filial piety – obedience of a child and mother to father, respect for elders, honor due to those who passed away.)
  • Also, it emphasized political virtue and social order, as well as loyalty to the community.
  • Daoism complemented Confucianism and embraced the traditional belief of nature’s harmony and added to the sense of nature’s mystery.
  • The Arts of Classical China
  • There are six types of classical arts:
  • Poetry
  • Dance
  • Music
  • Painting
  • Architecture
  • Sculpture
  • These arts all flourished in ancient China, since China had a long history.
  • Classical Chinese Poetry
  • Chinese poetry came about very early in China’s history.
  • Classic of Poetry was the first written collection of poems in China. It is believed that Confucius had gathered Classic of Poetry.
  • Chu Chi came after Classic of Poetry. (Also known as The Poetry of Chu: The Songs of the South) This was a collection of the works from Q Yuan and his followers.
  • Ballads came after Chu Chi (Poetry in the form of ballads).
  • In the Tang Dynasty, Lshi came about very quickly (a classical poem of 8 lines).
  • In the Song Dynasty, there came the Ci poetry. Poets in the Song Dynasty were skilled in the use of switching from long to short sentences.
  • In the Yuan Dynasty, San Qu came about. San Qu is a type of opera with tonal patterns modeled from the tunes of folk music.
  • Classical Chinese Dance
  • Chinese ancestors had already began dancing and used it as part of their community activity around 7,000-8,000 years ago.
  • During the Shang Dynasty, dance became part of a main factor of ceremonies that include prayer and worship.
  • During the Tang Dynasty, court dance reached its peak.
  • Martial and civil dances were present in Chinese dancing, and even included dancing with empty hands or with weap0ns.
  • Other types of dances:
  • The lion dance in Hebei and Guandong Provinces
  • The tea-picking dance in Yunnan Province
  • The great yangge in the Northeast
  • Classical Dances Cont. The Lion dance Tea -picking dance The Great Yangge Dance Classical Chinese Painting
  • Early Chinese had already developed painting techniques by the Neolithic age.
  • Chinese had already began using pictures and portraits to express and state their imaginative thoughts.
  • Paintings in the Han Dynasty used precise, simple lines, and conveyed imaginative subjects.
  • Chinese painting strived for vibrant colors, vividness, and contrast, as well as precise ink lines.
  • Classical Chinese Architecture
  • Architectural advancements in the Zhou, Qin, and Han dynasties include:
  • The advent of earth tiles, used to cover the ridge and gutters of the house.
  • People plastered a mixture of soil, lime, and sand on their walls and floors.
  • Dougong (corbel brackets) were used to support the projecting eaves and are placed on column heads.
  • The famous Great Wall and the Terracotta Army which is called the eighth wonder of the world.
  • Gabled roof, hipped roof, and double-eaved roof were commonly used in the Han Dynasty.
  • Classical Chinese Architecture Classical Chinese Sculpture
  • In Classical Chinese sculpture, themes included everyday subjects, along with dead emperors and rulers. Themes of sculptures can also be figurines of performers in operas or many other characters. Popular everyday themes of animals include: oxen, horses, dogs, pigs, bears, tigers, lions, etc. Huge statues of Buddhas, arhats, Bodhisattvas, deities, and demons can also be found.
  • Classical India: Culture
  • Religion was the clearest cultural cement of the Indian society. It cut across political and language barriers and across the castes.
  • Along with religion, and important tradition of rational scientific inquiry came about. It helped sustain major initiative in higher education.
  • Religion, legalism, abstract mathematics, and art and literature coexisted as Indian culture.
  • Classical India: Architecture
  • The Guptas built high towered temples.
  • A form of billboards came about in the Mauryan Empire.
  • The people built Stupas, which are spherical shrines for Buddha.
  • The Great Stupa in Sanchi, India
  • Classical India: Engineering
  • Ashoka created roads with rest areas for travelers.
  • Ashoka also created roads that connected to the Silk Road.
  • The Guptas created fashioning iron for many uses, but it was especially used for making weapons.
  • The Guptas engineered a vaccine for small pox.
  • Classical India: Art
  • The Buddhists started rock-cut cave art.
  • More than sixty religious structures were carved into or out of solid rock at the cliffs of Ajanta and Ellora. These monumental buildings tell us about the nature of society, everyday life, and popular culture.
  • The Sun Temple in Konark The Cliffs at Ajanta and Ellora Classical India: Literature
  • Vedas came about by the Aryans. Vedas are hymns that were originally transmitted orally but then written down in sacred books. They were written in Sanskrit and include Mahabharata and Ramayana.
  • Sanskrit was introduced by the Aryans, and became the first literary language of the Indian classical culture.
  • The Upanishads were epic poems that had mystical themes, and included sacred animals-monkeys/cattle, and rituals and sacrifice.
  • The Panchatantra is a story collection produced during the Gupta period, which included Sinbad the Sailor, and Jack the Giant Killer.
  • The Classical Mediterranean: Greece
  • Literature
  • During the classical age, starting from late fifth century B.C, Greece reached many achievements especially those in literature.
  • Their first writings date from the eighth century B.C they were often preservations of epic poems and ballads.
  • Greeks felt that knowing to read and write was essential for all citizens.
  • Some of Classical Greece’s renounced literary works are The Iliad and The Odyssey, by Homer, each exemplifying how far advanced the Greeks were in writing.
  • Both works tell of the Greeks religious beliefs.
  • Literature
  • During the following years Greek literature focused on play writes dedicated to the Greek Gods.
  • They were then performed in Athens during the festival of Dionysus.
  • Arts
  • During the Classical era, Greek art was focused on sculptures and statues.
  • Their statues were often built using bronze, detailed, and made in natural poses they depicted both the gods and their citizens.
  • Two of the Greeks most famous statues are Statue of Zeus at Olympia and the Statue of Athena Parthenos.
  • Architecture & Engineering
  • Classical Greeks architecture was characterized by their many stone temples dedicated to their gods.
  • The Greeks were one of the first civilizations to introduce columns, they were know for their construction of Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian order. They were also one of the first to have an irrigation system.
  • Two of the most eminent monuments were the Acropolis and the Parthenon.
  • Literature
  • The Literature Of Ancient Rome produced many works of poetry, comedy and tragedy. Similar to the Greeks. The literary works were written in Latin the native language.
  • There are few works that have been preserved but among these few surviving works, are the plays of Plautus and Terence. Both works were a series of comedies.
  • Arts
  • In Rome the Classical period consisted of many similar features to the Greek civilization, such as their art.
  • They also created several statues but the Romans emphasized more on the emperors rather than regular citizens.
  • Unlike the Greeks the Roman’s often made sculptures of people that only consisted of their face and bust.
  • Sculptures of the emperor Claudius THE CLASSICAL MEDITTERANEAN: ROME View of Rome with the Bridge and Castel St. Angelo by the Tiber Bath of Caracalla
  • Architecture & Engineering
  • Architecture was crucial to the success of Rome. Architecture like temples, basilicas, bridges, and aqueducts played important roles in unifying the empire.
  • The construction of roads with bridges helped communication across the empire.
  • Aqueducts like the Pont du Gard enabled the Romans to provide a water supply to its cities.
  • City walls like the one in central France protected the Roman cities.
  • Assyrian/Babylonian Empires The Great Civilizations of the Middle East: Artistic, Architectural, and Literate Advances. Assyrian/Babylonian Architecture Assyrian Palaces Hanging Gardens of Babylon Tower of Babylon Assyrian/Babylonian Literature Wrote in cuneiform: The Babylonian Flood Myth Gilgamesh Epic Assyrian/Babylonian Art Egyptian Civilization The Magnificent Age of the Pharaohs and the Pyramids Egyptian Architecture Egyptian Literature Egyptian Art Persian Empire The Greedy, Bloodthirsty, and Expansive Age of the Persians. Persian Architecture Persian Literature Persian Art Differences Between the Classical Ages
  • India had a more dynamic sensual style of art, whereas China’s art was restraint. The Classical era of the Greeks focused on statues and sculptures and the Romans focused primarily on the busts and heads of emperors.
  • India ultimately settled on a primary religion, Hinduism, whereas China opted for separate religious and philosophical systems that would have served different needs. The Greeks and the Romans favored polytheistic values, where they believed in many gods.
  • India’s cultural emphasis was, on balance, considerably more otherworldly that that of China, despite the impact of Daoism.
  • In science, the Chinese placed greater stress on purely practical findings, whereas the Indians ventured further into the mathematical arena.
  • Similarities Between the Classical Ages Ages
  • All of the civilizations in the Classical Ages were polytheistic.
  • The Classical civilizations all attributed to the technological advances in their society such as: the refining of iron and steel in China; vaccines for sicknesses, advances in science, and roads in India; agricultural advances for crops and monuments and buildings for rulers in the Mediterranean; etc.
  • Art was an important factor for the Classical civilizations, which stressed many features in their society.
  • Works Cited Ages
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