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  • 2. MECHANICS TIP • Use transitional phrases to connect sentences and paragraphs and organize writing into a unified whole • Transitional words and phrases can help your reader understand the logic of your paper • Always use a comma after a transitional phrase or word regardless of where it appears in the sentence • Examples of transitional phrases: • furthermore • moreover • too • also • in the second place • again • in addition • even more • next • while • immediately • never • after • later, earlier • always • when • soon • whenever • meanwhile • sometimes • in the meantime • during • afterward • nevertheless • nonetheless • after all • but • however • though • Otherwise • therefore • consequently • accordingly • thus • hence • as a result
  • 3. MECHANICS TIP (CONT.) • Examples: • Subsequently, the mayor agreed in 1995 to allow yo-yos in public places once more. • This kind of person, for instance, would be more susceptible to illness. • The research, so far, indicates that women tolerate the drug better than men. • In contrast, the people in the urban areas seemed to thrive under these provisions. • The scientist, however, doubted the proof.
  • 4. IN-CLASS EXERCISE • Using your handout, find an appropriate transitional word or phrase to insert in the blanks. • _________________, the sales representative concluded her speech with a demonstration. • _________________, the research proved that men cannot operate the machine as well as women. • The media, ____________________, portrayed him as a raving lunatic instead of a visionary. • The information showed, _______________________, that the fundamentals of the experiment were lacking. This, ________________, led us to understand our research on a whole new level. • ____________________, this type of novel is not one to be read just once in a lifetime.
  • 6. WHY LITERARY ANALYSIS? • Literary analysis- the practice of looking closely at small parts of a story or poem to see how they affect the whole • Focuses on how plot, character, setting, and more create meaning • Writing about a literary work encourages us to become better readers because it requires a close examination of the elements and themes of a story • Paying close attention to the details allows us to understand how a work conveys its intent and meaning • Understanding and employing literary analysis is a method crucial to research • Being able to identify tone, biases, psychological complexities, and themes can help you dissect many works for validation, inspiration, and further research
  • 7. LITERATURE AS RESEARCH • Is literature a type of research? • Yes! Writing poems, novels, biographies, fictional stories, and all that good stuff is an exploration of our humanity • A study that has been around since the beginning of civilization • Literature can: • validate many social customs and practices specific to a culture • embody a moment in history • Inspire further research into a subject • Create commentaries on political injustices
  • 8. USING ELEMENTS OF LITERATURE • Authors make specific choices for particular reasons • Writing and responding to literature should be an effort to point out the authors choices and explain their significance • Literary analysis varies by perspective • You do not always have to value the author’s intentions with a work • As long as you can use the text to defend your answer, you are correct!
  • 9. ALLEGORY • A narrative form in which the characters are representative of some larger humanistic trait (greed, vanity, bravery) and attempts to convey some larger lesson or meaning to life • Examples of allegories: • X-Men evils of prejudice • Harry Potter dangers of seeking racial purity • The Tortoise and the Hare wasting natural talent/ laziness
  • 10. CHARACTER • Representation of a person, place, or thing performing traditionally human activities in a work of fiction • Protagonist- the character the story revolves around • Antagonist- a character that opposes the protagonist • Minor character- provides support or illumination for the protagonist • Characterization- The choices and author makes to reveal a character’s personality, such as appearance, actions, dialogue, and motivations
  • 11. IMAGERY • The author’s attempt to create a mental picture in the mind of the reader • Most immediate forms of imagery are visual • Some imagery can evoke emotional sensations • How would you recreate this scene using imagery?
  • 12. PLOT • The arrangement of ideas and/or incidents that make up a story • Foreshadowing- When the writer clues the reader in to something that will eventually occur in the story • Suspense- the tension the author uses to create a feeling of discomfort about the unknown • Conflict- struggle between opposing forces • Exposition- background information regarding the setting, characters, and plot • Rising action- the process the story follows as it builds to a conflict • Crisis- a significant turning point in the story that determines how it must end • Resolution- the way the story turns out
  • 13. POINT OF VIEW • Pertains to who tells the story and how it is told • Narrator- the person telling the story who may or may not be a character in the story • First-Person- narrator participates in action but has limited knowledge/vision • Second person- narrator addresses the reader directly as though they are part of the story • Third Person (Objective)- narrator is unnamed/unidentified (a dethatched observer) • Omniscient- All-knowing narrator (multiple perspectives)
  • 14. SETTING • The place or location of the action • Provides historical and cultural context for the characters • Can symbolize the emotional state of characters
  • 15. IN-CLASS ACTIVITY • Children’s literature can be a good place to begin with literary analysis. Generally, children’s literature is easy to dissect and have broad, allegoric themes that create commentaries on morality, safety, and social expectation. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k25wlcFOglA • Listen to this story and answer the following questions: • How did Dr. Seuss employ imagery? How did this imagery influence the message of the story? • Who was the protagonist? Who is the antagonist? Who are the minor characters? • Did any of the characters represent something bigger than their part? • What was the setting? Did it change? • Did Seuss employ foreshadowing? What was the crisis? The resolution? • What was the allegory of this story? • Is this story significant outside the study of literature?
  • 16. PLANNING A LITERARY ARGUMENT • Decide what you want to argue about • An argumentative essay attempts to change the way readers think about something • Topic must be one on which some people might disagree • Topic should be narrow enough to debate within your page limit • If your topic is too broad you cannot hope to discuss it in detail • Your topic should be interesting • Your ideas should be well supported
  • 17. DEVELOPING AN ARGUMENTATIVE THESIS • An argumentative thesis statement makes a claim about a topic and then justifies it with specific evidence • lays the foundation for your entire argument • Your thesis must make it clear to readers what position you are taking • You must be able to support your thesis with evidence from the text • What do I mean by claim? • A claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation
  • 18. EXAMPLE: ARGUMENTATIVE THESIS STATEMENT • It would help our economy and inspire patriotism if everyone in the United States were required to serve one year in the military or do one year of community service work. • The paper that follows should: • Support the claim that military and community service aid the economy • Support the claim that military and community service inspire patriotism • The character the Onceler represented small business owners and how they can be afflicted by capitalistic greed and lose site of their business’ original goals and intentions. • What should the following paper be about?
  • 19. BUILDING MAIN POINTS/ BODY • Consider the literary evidence that support your claim • Consider how your beliefs and values support the claim • Consider how the beliefs and values of society affect your claim • Build strong main points that relate to the text and the larger argument • Understand your opinion on the matter • Understand the opposition
  • 20. USING EVIDENCE • Use MLA format to cite quotes, paraphrases, and themes from a work • All main points should be supported by textual evidence • You can also use textual evidence to disprove the opposing argument
  • 21. DUE: • Thursday September 15: • Have read first half of Sleepy Hollow • QUIZ over first half (REVIEW LITERARY TERMS) • Be working on Mini Paper • Tuesday September 20: • Have finished Sleepy Hollow • QUIZ over second half • Have your mini paper for peer review • If you do not bring your mini paper you will be asked to leave class • Journal due Sunday 9/18 by midnight!
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