1.1 Energy Scenario

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1. Energy Scenario 1. ENERGY SCENARIO Syllabus Energy Scenario: Commercial and Non-Commercial Energy, Primary Resources, Commercial Energy Production, Final Energy Consumption, Needs of Growing Economy, Long Term Energy Scenario, Energy Pricing, Sector Reforms, Energy and Environment, Air Pollution, Climate Change, Security, Energy Conservation and its Importance, Energy Strategy for the Energy Conservation Act-2001 and its Features. Energy Energy Energy Energy Future, 1.1 Introduction Energy
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  1. Energy Scenario 1.   ENERGY SCENARIO SyllabusEnergy Scenario : Commercial and Non-Commercial Energy, Primary EnergyResources, Commercial Energy Production, Final Energy Consumption, Energy Needs of Growing Economy, Long Term Energy Scenario, Energy Pricing, EnergySector Reforms, Energy and Environment, Air Pollution, Climate Change, EnergySecurity, Energy Conservation and its Importance, Energy Strategy for the Future,Energy Conservation Act-2001 and its Features. 1.1 Introduction Energy is one of the major inputs for the economic development of any country. In the caseof the developing countries, the energy sector assumes a critical importance in view of theever-increasing energy needs requiring huge investments to meet them.Energy can be classified into several types based on the following criteria as: ã   Primary and Secondary energy ã   Commercial and Non commercial energy ã   Renewable and Non-Renewable energy 1.2 Primary and Secondary Energy Primary energy sourcesare those that are either found or stored in nature.Common primary energysources are coal, oil,natural gas, and biomass(such as wood). Other  primary energy sourcesfound on earth includenuclear energy fromradioactive substances,thermal energy stored inearth’s interior, and potential energy due toearth’s gravity. Themajor primary andsecondary energysources are shown inFigure 1.1 Figure 1.1 Major Primary and Secondary Sources Petrochemical Openor DeepMines GradingPower StationPurificationEnrichmentMiningTreatmentGas WellCrackingandRefiningOilWellLPGPetrolDiesel/fuel oilsCoalCoal Coke Electricity Nuclear  Natural gasPetroleumHydro Natural gas SourceExtractionPrimary energySecondaryEnergyProcessingSteamSteamThermalThermal Bureau of Energy Efficiency   1  1. Energy ScenarioPrimary energy sources are mostly converted in industrial utilities into  secondary energy  sources; for example coal, oil or gas converted into steam and electricity. Primary energysources can also be used directly as well. Some energy sources have non-energy uses; for example coal or natural gas can be used as a feedstock in fertiliser plants. 1.3 Commercial Energy and Non Commercial Energy Commercial Energy The energy sources that are available in the market for a definite price are known ascommercial energy. By far the most important forms of commercial energy are electricity,coal and refined petroleum products. Commercial energy forms the basis of industrial,agricultural, transport and commercial development in the modern world. In theindustrialized countries, commercialized fuels are predominant source not only for economic production, but also for many household tasks of general population.Examples: Electricity, lignite, coal, oil, natural gas etc. Non-Commercial Energy The energy sources that are not available in the commercial market for a price are classifiedas non-commercial energy. Non-commercial energy sources include fuels such as firewood,cattle dung and agricultural wastes, which are traditionally gathered, and not bought at a price used especially in rural households. These are also called traditional fuels. Non-commercial energy is often ignored in energy accounting.Example: Firewood, agro waste in rural areas; solar energy for water heating, electricitygeneration, for drying grain, fish and fruits; animal power for transport, threshing, liftingwater for irrigation, crushing sugarcane; wind energy for lifting water and electricitygeneration. 1.4 Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Renewable energy is energy obtained from sources that are essentially inexhaustible.Examples of renewable resources include wind power, solar power, geothermal energy, tidal power and hydroelectric power (See Figure 1.2). The most important feature of renewableenergy is that it can be harnessed without the release of harmful pollutants. Non-renewable energy is the conventional fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas, which arelikely to deplete with time. Bureau of Energy Efficiency   2  1. Energy ScenarioRenewable Non-Renewable Figure 1.2 Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy 1.5 Global Primary Energy Reserves *   Coal The global coal reserve was estimated to be 9,84,453 million tonnes by end of 2002. The USA had the largest share of the global reserve(25.4%) followed by Russia (15.9%), China (11.6%). India was 4 th inthe list with 8.6%. Oil The global proven oil reserve was estimated to be 1047 billion barrels by the end of 2002.Saudi Arabia   had the largest share of the reserve with almost 25%.(One barrel of oil is approximately 160 litres) Gas  The global proven gas reserve was estimated to be 156 trillion cubicmetres by the end of 2002. The Russian Federation had the largestshare of the reserve with almost 30%. ( * Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2003) World oil and gas reserves are estimated at just 45 years and 65years respectively. Coal is likely to last a little over 200 years   Bureau of Energy Efficiency   3  1. Energy Scenario Global Primary Energy Consumption The global primary energy consumption at the end of 2002 was equivalent to 9405 milliontonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe). The Figure 1.3 shows in what proportions the sourcesmentioned above contributed to this global figure. Figure 1.3 Global Primary Energy Consumption The primary energy consumption for few of the developed and developing countries isshown in Table 1.1. It may be seen that India’s absolute primary energy consumption is only1/29 th of the world, 1/7 th of USA, 1/1.6 th time of Japan but 1.1, 2.9, 1.3, 1.5 times of Canada,Australia, France and U.K respectively. Table 1.1 Primary Energy Consumption by fuel (2002) in Million Tonnes Oil Equivalent Oil Natural Gas Coal Nuclear Hydro TotalShare of Total USA 894.3 600.7 553.8 185.858.2 2293.0 24.4% Canada 89.7 72.6 30.7 17.0 78.6 288.7 3.1% France 92.8 38.5 12.7 98.9 15.0 258.0 2.7% Russian Federation 122.9 349.6 98.5 32.0 37.2 640.2 6.8% United Kingdom 77.2 85.1 36.5 19.9 1.7 220.3 2.3% China 245.7 27.0 663.4 5.9 55.8 997.8 10.6% India 97.7 25.4 180.8 4.4 16.9 325.1 3.5% Japan 242.6 69.7 105.3 71.3 20.5 509.4 5.4% Malaysia 22.5 24.3 3.3 - 1.7 51.8 0.6% Pakistan 17.9 18.8 2.1 0.4 4.6 43.8 0.5% Singapore 35.5 1.6 - - - 37.1 0.4%TOTAL WORLD 3522.52282.0 2397.9610.6592.19405.0 Bureau of Energy Efficiency   4
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