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  New Concerns in the North, 1868-1876Grantism:    Grant‟s presidency was filled with bribery, fraud, and corruption—  his subordinates, not him personally; he had few political skills      His sec/state named FISH! Convinced England to pay America $15.5 mil. for Confederate ships they damaged during thewar       Previous president annexed Alaska, so Grant tried to annex Dominican Republic and failed. The Liberals’ Revolt:      Liberal Republicans (free trade, hard money, supply/demand)  —  thought Reconstruction was complete, said corruption was bigger problem      Liberals/Democrats supported Greeley, but he died. Grant won the election  —   passed Amnesty Act, allowed Confederates tohold office  The Panic of 1873:    America was full of industrialization, speculation, econ. growth, especially railroads  —  transcontinental finished in 1869      Owner of Transcontinental/Largest bank‟s costs outran investments, so the bank failed, triggering the Panic of 1873      Americans used yellow bank notes, which had a gold value, and green, which did not. The “sound money” policy would get rid of all green      This favored investors but hurt indebted farmers, who needed this easy money      Public Credit Act made the government pay back government bonds (IOU‟s) in gold coin, not greenbacks—  eliminatedsilver dollar       “Free - silver” advocated passed Bland -Allison Act, partially restored silver coins      The Greenback Party was created, fought to keep greenbacks in circulation  Reconstruction and the Constitution:     Ex Parte Milligan said military courts can‟t work when there‟s civil ones. Texas v. White said Reconstruction wasConstitutional    The Slaughterhouse cases happened when Louisiana gave one slaughterhouse a monopoly and shut all others down.Butchers argued that the state took their occupation w/o due process. Court ruled that the 14 th amendment protected nationalrights, not states.      The Court eventually nullified Civil Rights Act/1875 and Ku Klux Klan Act  —  dismantled Reconstruction policies   Republicans in Retreat:    The Reconstruction ideas faded along with the radical Republicans  —  no one on either side wanted black equality  Reconstruction Abandoned, 1876-1877 “Redeeming” the South:      Though the Democrats  —between Bourbons and the “New South”—  were divided, they still had a common goal: get rid of the Republicans      Dems used intimidation, promising to cut taxes, terrorizing black voters, and scare tactics to gain support back       Dems deprived Repubs of black votes  —  labor contracts could deny political involvement, elections could be public, usedthreat of eviction      Dems used their power to repeal Republican policies. They weakened blacks so they could have a strong black labor force      The exodus movement tried to impose a form of servitude similar to slavery  —“Exo - dusters” (blacks) fled from these areas to Kansas  The Election of 1876:    Repubs nominated Rutherford Hayes, Dems nominated Samuel Tilden. Tilden looked like he would win, so the Repubs challenged the votes from S. Carolina/Florida/Louisiana. The Dems then challenged Oregon‟s vote so they could win. CRAZYYYY!      Both sides were full of fraud, and Congress would decide. Dems threatened a filibuster, so politicians created a compromise      The Compromise of 1877 said Hayes could be president if the military was removed from the South--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  Native Americans and the Trans-Mississippi WestThe Plains Indians:    The Plains Indians depended on family and tribal cooperation    Many hunted bison, but settlers threatened this  —systematically hunted; William “Buffalo Bill” Cody   The Assault on Nomadic Indian Life:     Settlers made government redo its Native American policies  —  concentrate them in reservations, use force    Some tribes accepted this, but some like the Navajos and Sioux fought back  o   Sand Creek   —  Colonel Chivington massacred peaceful Indians to retaliate against previous attacks    Medicine Lodge Treaty/1867  —   Natives in central America move to Oklahoma    54000 Northern Plains Indians signed Ft. Laramie Treaty  —  move to Great Sioux Reservation, South Dakota    Some tribes invaded towns in Kansas/Colorado; George Custer‟s group then killed Cheyennes in their sleep      Protestant agents for the Board of Indian Commissioners sucked at running Indian reservations    Raids in Texas started Red River War, and the American army crushed them, ending resistance in South plains Custer’s Last Stand, 1876:       Non-treaty Sioux found a leader in Sitting Bull  —  attacked white settlers in the West, intimidated agents    Custer was sent to edge of reservation (Black Hills, South Dakota) to regain control and extract concessions    Indians outside the reservation after Jan. 31 could be hunted down and brought in by force    Custer attacked Little Bighorn. He underestimated the Indians. Loss made army more determined in the future, attacked inWinter and destroyed supplies “Saving” the Indians:      Helen Hunt Jackson wrote  A Century of Dishonor  , 1881, about the government‟s treaty breaking with Indians      Boarding schools tried to end Indians‟ nomadic l ives/customs; Indians formed relationships with the others there, fail.    Dawes Severality Act tried to give Indians rights & incorporate them into everyday society (give farmland, citizenship)    Most who received land had to scrape a living  —  dry soil, no timetable for reservation breakup The Ghost Dance and the End of Indian Resistance on the Great Plains,1890    A prophet who saw the return of old way of life started Ghost Dance. Sitting Bull was killed at one!    Rounding up Sioux at Wounded Knee, a shot was fired, and the army retaliated, killing 300/340--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Setting the WestThe First Transcontinental Railroad:    Railroad companies used Chinese, Irish, Mexican-American, and Blacks for cheap labor     Railroads sped up settlement, aided attacks on Indians, increased animal harvest, made shipping supplies easier  Settlers and the Railroad:    Railroads got 170 mil. acres from Congress. Bureaus gave transportation, loans, and advised the emigration of families    Railroads brought immigrants to the Mississippi-West. People grew cash crops (wheat, corn, cotton) to get money fast Homesteading on the Great Plains:    Homesteading didn‟t give enough land, so the Timber Culture act (160 more if trees on 40) Desert Land act (640 acres for irrigating) Stone Act (160 of forest). Land abused by speculators, lumber companies, ranchers    People had issues dealing with weather, pests, hard work, and loneliness of frontier life, so they moved around often New Farms, New Markets:    Amount of money needed to start a farm was greater than an industrial worker‟s salary, so people grew cash crops      Farmers depended on railroads and the success of the international grain market, which fluctuated frequently Building a Society and Achieving Statehood:    Community members depended on each other and often pooled their labor for quilting bees or barn raisings    Achieving statehood required a petition for Congress‟s approval; set up borders, elections, and the constitution    Idaho, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado granted women full voting rights to attract the settlement of families/women The Spread of Mormonism:    Even though the gvmt. disapproved of Mormons, they still wanted to build an independent country  —  Deseret    Tried to be economically dependent  —  own corporation/railroads, discouraged use of imported items    United States v. Reynolds said polygamy was illegal  —freedom of religion doesn‟t protect practices      The Edmunds-Tucker Act dissolved church company, limited assets, abolished woman voting, and put its properties intocontrol by courts.    Eventually cancelled polygamy/Peoples‟ Party, applied for statehood. Property and jailed polygamists were returned   Southwestern Borderlands:Introduction:    Cotton planters labeled natives as nonwhites, denied them rights. Juan Cortina attacked Brownsville in retaliation     Flood/drought, slumping cattle industry ended ranched in California, forced people to begin more urbanized jobs    Mexican-American ranchers started a self-protection vigilante group called the White Caps: attacked whites, upper-classHispanics, tore up railroads----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Exploiting the Western Landscape:The Mining Frontier:    A huge amount of gold was found on the Comstock Lode (Nevada), so prospectors swarmed the Rocky Mts.    Mining cities were big, busy, and diverse. Mining resulted in the colonization and purchase of  Alaska in „67      Mining hurt the environment: polluted rivers, land filled with mercury, smelters polluted air with carcinogens Cowboys and the Cattle Frontier:    McCoy & free-range cattle: raise cheaply in Texas, transport via railroad to the North to be sold at Cattle Drives    Cowboys often got attacked by cattle rustlers (Billy the Kid). Blacks like Nat Love liked the freedom of being a cowboy    Sagging prices, removal of cattle from reservations, droughts, cold weather, and Texas fever weakened cattle industry Cattle Towns and Prostitutes:    Prostitution thrived due to large amounts of saloons and unattached young men    Bonanza Farms:    Wheat boom (Dakota) brought in speculators-made farms that operated like factories: managers, labor, equipment    Movement collapsed due to overproduction, high cost of investment, weather, excessive reliance, decreased prices The Oklahoma Land Rush, 1889:    Since the Civilized Tribes (Oklahoma) sided with Confederates, the government confiscated their lands in Central Okla.    The Curtis Act of 1898 dissolved the Indian Territory (Oklahoma) and its tribal governments The West of Life and LegendThe American Adam and the Dime-Novel Hero:    The stereotypical Western hero was simple, virtuous, innocent, and untainted by corrupt society    Wild West Shows depicted fights between cowboys and Indians; West was a place where virtue always won  Revitalizing the Frontier Legend:    Theodore Roosevelt wrote about West ( The Winning of the West  ) and Frederick Remington painted it      Owen Wister wrote The Virginian  —  depicted Westerners as honest, strong men who attacked the evils of society  Beginning a National Parks Movement:    John Wesley Powell mapped the Colorado River and wrote  Report on the Lands of the Arid Regions of the United States  —  argued that settlers need to change their current way of life to preserve the land      Group of explorers led by Washburn petitioned Congress  —  created Yellowstone National Park       George Perkins Marsh wrote  Man and Nature , warned people to stop destroying the landscape      John Muir was the most prominent supporter of the conservation movement  
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