7. Stability and Cloud Development

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7. Stability and Cloud Development. 7.1 Atmospheric Stability 7.2 Determining Stability 7.3 Cloud development. 7.1 Atmospheric Stability. 7.2 Determining stability. Upward acceleration of the air parcel. A stable Atmosphere.
7. Stability and Cloud Development 7.1 Atmospheric Stability 7.2 Determining Stability 7.3 Cloud development 7.1 Atmospheric Stability 7.2 Determining stability Upward acceleration of the air parcel A stable Atmosphere the environmental lapse rate <the moist adiabatic rate : absolutely stable Cirrostratus, altostratus, nimbostratus, stratus
  • Cooling of the surface air
  • Nighttime radiational cooling of the surface
  • An influx of cold surface air brought in by
  • the wind
  • Air moving over a cold surface
  • Subsidence inversion: the atmosphere becomes more stable when an entire layer of air sinks. An unstable atmosphere when an the environmental lapse rate >the dry adiabatic rate : absolutely unstable A conditionally unstable atmosphere when an The moist adiabatic rate< the environmental lapse rate <the dry adiabatic rate Causes of instability when an
  • The cooling of the air aloft
  • Clod advection
  • Clouds emitting infrared radiation
  • to space
  • The warming of the surface air
  • Daytime solar heating of the surface
  • Warm advection
  • Air moving over a warm surface
  • Mixing tends steepen the lapse rate when an The lifting of a layer makes it more unstable when an Equivalent potential temperature when an (상당 온위) How temperature varies with pressure under condition of saturated adiabatic ascent or descent? Equivalent potential temperature: the potential temperature of a parcel of air when all the water vapor has condensed so that its saturation mixing ratio is zero. Conserved quantity during both dry and saturated adiabatic processes Convective instability when an Sufficient lifting may cause the layer to become conditionally unstable Lower layer -> moist adiabat Upepr layer -> dry adiabat Wikimedia commons 7.3 Cloud development when an Convection and clouds when an Level of free convection: the level where the rising air becomes warmer than the surrounding air Condensation level: the elevation where the cloud forms Determining convective cloud base becomes warmer Topography and clouds becomes warmer Rain shadow: leeward side of the mountain where precipitation is noticeably less
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