APUSH REVIEW Kennedy, Johnson, Civil Rights, Vietnam, Minorities, Women, Counterculture

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APUSH REVIEW Kennedy, Johnson, Civil Rights, Vietnam, Minorities, Women, Counterculture. As found in Barron’s Study Keys EZ-101 American History 1877 to the Present Published 1992. Theme 13: Decade of Change the 1960s.
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APUSH REVIEWKennedy, Johnson, Civil Rights, Vietnam, Minorities, Women, CountercultureAs found in Barron’s Study Keys EZ-101American History 1877 to the PresentPublished 1992Theme 13: Decade of Change the 1960sMany issues and problems became matters of national concern during the 1960s; racial and gender inequality, economic deprivation, the limits of the Cold War containment strategy. This era of protest and upheaval owed its origins to demographic and cultural shifts, such as the entrance of baby boomers into colleges and the black exodus from the South. Social and political turmoil scarred the decade.Key 68: Kennedy’s New FrontierOverview: John F. Kennedy brought energy and initiative to the presidency. His charisma and style energized Americans and made them optimistic about the future in spite of the existence of communism in the world and of poverty in America.
  • Election of 1960: Eisenhower’s vice president, Richard M. Nixon, was defeated in a close election by his Democratic opponent, John F. Kennedy, a senator from Massachusetts (1953-60) and a former congressman (1947-53)
  • The major election issues concerned foreign affairs and the question of whether America’s economic growth was proceeding at a satisfactory rate.
  • Kennedy received 49.9% of the popular vote
  • He was the first Catholic president, and his religion was an issue in the election
  • Kenned-Nixon debates: Series of four televised debates that aided Kennedy’s presidential candidacy.
  • Kennedy looked and acted vigorous and self-confident
  • Nixon, who was recovering from an illness, appeared unshaved and haggard
  • New Frontier: A term given to Kennedy’s program of domestic legislation
  • The program consisted of aid to public schools, wilderness preservation, federal investment in mass transportation, and medical insurance for the elderly, funded by Social Security.
  • Legislative initiatives met opposition in Congress
  • Bright, ambitious advisers and academics, attracted by the program, joined the administration, which believed that the federal gov’t should be active, strong, and visible, with the president setting the tone.
  • Housing Act of 1961: Allotted federal grant money to cities for mass transit, subsidization of middle-income housing, and preservation of open space.
  • Economic policies: These involved tariffs, taxes, and inflation.
  • Kennedy initiated tariff negotiations with foreign governments to stimulate American exports
  • In 1962 he proposed a federal tax cut to stimulate the economy
  • To control inflation, he pressured U.S. Steel to abandon its plans for price increases. Although his effort was temporarily successful, several months later the steel companies raised prices
  • Key 68: Kennedy’s New Frontier
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Created to undertake space exploration and put an astronaut on the moon which was accomplished by the Apollo II Mission in 1969
  • Peace Corps: Funded by Congress in 1961; its first director was Sargent Shriver
  • Open to women and men of all ages, it was designed to assist people in developing nations.
  • It helped promote goodwill and U.S. ideals
  • Volunteers, who served for 2-3 years, received an allowance to meet basic needs and maintain their health
  • Kennedy assassination (November 22, 1963): Thinking ahead to his reelection in 1964, Kennedy went to Dallas for a political appearance
  • Riding in a motorcade, he was struck by two bullets and died a half-hour later
  • Lee Harvey Oswald, accused killer of the president, was later shot by Jack Ruby
  • For 4 days, Americans watched the events associated with presidential funeral unfold
  • Chief Justice Earl Warren directed an investigation of the killing, which uncovered no evidence of a conspiracy. It resulted in the Warren Commission Report.
  • The assassination has continued to stir controversy
  • Key Quotation:
  • Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country
  • John F. Kennedy
  • Inaugural speech, 1961
  • Key 69: Foreign policy under KennedyOverview: The Cold War mentality, particularly the doctrine of containment, characterized the decade, as evinced by the Vietnam War. The United States believed that it must resist communism wherever it appeared. Effects of this policy included enhanced power of the president, continued growth of the military-industrial complex, larger defense budgets, and growing deficits.
  • “Flexible response”: A defense strategy under the Kennedy administration, which emphasized strengthening the tools of war and creating new ones. It held that a myriad of weapons could deter any type of war
  • Alliance for Progress 1961: Fostered a series of projects, jointly undertaken by the United States and Latin American nations, to encourage economic development in Latin America and thus prevent the spread of communism
  • Berlin Wall 1961: To curtail the exodus of East Berliners to West Berlin, the Soviet Union directed East Germany to build a wall between East and West Berlin. It symbolized the tension between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.
  • Bay of Pigs (April 17, 1961): An attack on Cuba, which proved a great embarrassment to the United States. Begun under Eisenhower, it sought to eliminate Castro and communism.
  • The CIA trained an army of anti-Castro Cuban exiles in Central America
  • They were transported to the Bay of Pigs in Cuba for an invasion of that country, which was expected to meet with popular support
  • Its failure is attributed to two factors: Kennedy decided not to supply air support, and the Cuban people did not rise up to support the invaders
  • Castro’s forces crushed the invaders in 2 days
  • Cuban missile crisis (October 1962): American intelligence sources and aerial reconnaissance photos uncovered evidence that Soviet missiles were being set up in Cuba
  • Kennedy set up a naval and air blockade around Cuba
  • While an American air attack on the missile sites was being considered, Soviet premier Khruschev sent Kennedy a message implying that the missiles would be removed if America pledged not to invade Cuba
  • Kennedy agreed and privately promised to remove U.S. missiles from Turkey as well
  • The two nations retreated from the brink of war
  • In November 1962, Russia agreed to dismantle all its missile bases in Cuba
  • Key 69: Foreign policy under Kennedy
  • Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 1963: In this initial step toward mutual arms reduction, the United States and the U.S.S.R. agreed to ban the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere
  • Turmoil in the Dominican Republic: Power struggles followed the 1961 assassination of General Rafael Trujillo
  • American troops were sent there in 1965 to prevent the establishment of a pro-Castro, Communist regime
  • Forces were withdrawn after a conservative, Joaquin Balaguer, took control
  • Key 70: Johnson’s Great SocietyOverview: Although Kennedy’s accomplishments were meager and were cut short by his assassination, President Lyndon B. Johnson, through his genius for compromise, implemented many of Kennedy’s plans and all that Truman had outlined in 1946
  • Election of 1946: Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, vice president under Kennedy, was challenged by Barry Goldwater, an Arizona senator and the Republican nominee.
  • Johnson offered a liberal agenda; Goldwater, a conservative, campaigned against expanding federal power in the economy and in civil rights
  • Johnson won 61% of the popular vote, one of the great landslides in American history
  • Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) (1964): As a domestic “Peace Corps,” it was created by Johnson as part of the Office of Economic Opportunity.
  • Twenty-fourth Amendment 1964: Outlawed the poll tax, which had been used in the South to prevent blacks from voting
  • Civil Rights Act 1964: Prohibited discrimination by employers and unions and guaranteed equal access to schools and public accommodations
  • Created the Equal Opportunity Commission to prevent job discrimination due to religion, national origin, race or sex.
  • Granted new powers to the U.S. attorney general to enforce these rights
  • Kennedy-Johnson tax cut 1964: The economy was stimulated by a tax cut proposed by Kennedy in 1962 and enacted in 1964
  • Great Society: Term applied to President Johnson’s domestic program of the 1960s. Its top priority was his “war on poverty”
  • The Economic Opportunity Act 1964 set up the Office of Economic Opportunity. Programs included
  • Operation Head Start aiding preschoolers from underpriveleged homes
  • Job Corps for dropouts
  • Neighborhood Youth Corps for unemployed teens
  • Upward Bound assisting low income teens to aspire to college
  • Other programs targeting rural areas and encouraging urbanites to help themselves (e.g. Model Cities Program)
  • Key 70: Johnson’s Great Society
  • Upward Bound assisting low income teens to aspire to college
  • Other programs targeting rural areas and encouraging urbanites to help themselves (e.g. Model Cities Program)
  • The New Deal Social Security programs now included other groups of workers (e.g. waitresses), and benefits were raised and tied to the cost of living
  • The Dept. of Housing and Urban Development was created to focus on cities
  • New environmental legislation sought to improve the quality of water and air
  • With the tax increase of 1967, a 10% surcharge to curb inflation, came a $6 billion reduction in funding for the Great Society programs
  • By this point the Vietnam War had affected the economy
  • Elderly Health Care Plans: Programs included:
  • Medicare (1965) funded through Social Security payroll taxes, it is a health plan for workers over 65, whether retired or still employed
  • Medicaid (1965) Funded by taxes, it is a health care plan for welfare recipients
  • National Endowment for Arts (1965) Supports performing and creative art programsNational Endowment for the Humanities (1965) Supports projects that interpret America’s cultural and historical heritageElementary and Secondary Education Act (1965) Allocated $1 billion in federal funds to impoverished children attending Catholic schoolsVoting Rights Act (1965) authorized the attorney general to send federal examiners to the South to register voters. Literacy and other voter qualification tests in states or counties were outlawedImmigration Act (1965) Limited the number of new immigrants to 170,000 a year. While immigration from some parts of Latin America was still restricted, people from Asia, Europe, and Africa could enter the U.S. on an equal basisCivil Rights Act (1968) Prohibited discrimination in the sale or rental of housing. Imposed penalties on people who injured civil rights workers and on persons who traveled from state to state to organize riotsKey 71: The Vietnam War unfoldsOverview: By the late 1950s, after the French loss in 1954 and the failure to hold promised free election in 1955, civil war raged between North and South Vietnam. President Johnson chose to escalate U.S. involvement during the 1960s after Kennedy’s initial use of advisers.
  • Situation in Vietnam during the 1950s and early 1960s: The United States had become involved in the civil war
  • Communist guerillas had organized the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF) which had ties to the Communist gov’t of the North
  • South Vietnam leader Ngo Dinh Diem asked for U.S. assistance and military aid
  • Between 1955 and 1961, 650 military advisers were sent to South Vietnam
  • Kennedy increased such military assistance, and 15,500 military personnel were sent to South Vietnam
  • The U.S. instigated a coup whereby military leaders took over the gov’t
  • Diem and his associates were killed
  • Johnson’s Vietnam policy after Kennedy’s assassination: Influenced by his foreign policy advisers, Johnson believed that the U.S. had an obligation to resist communism in Vietnam, and therefore escalated involvement in the war. Initially he sent 5,000 military advisers.
  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964): Passed by Congress, it became the legal means for escalation of the conflict, allowing the president to “take all necessary measures” to protect American forces and “prevent further aggression” in South Asia
  • The resolution was a response to an unprovoked attack by North Vietnamese torpedo boats on American destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin
  • Doubts were later raised as to whether this act of aggression had actually taken place
  • Bombing of North Vietnam (1965): After Communist forces attacked an American base at Pleiku and seven marines dies, Johnson ordered bombing of the North
  • Such bombing raids continued until 1972
  • They had little effect, however, in limiting North Vietnamese assistance to the NLF
  • Key 71: The Vietnam War unfolds
  • Troop strength: 100,000 U.S. troops were in South Vietnam by 1965, and 500,000 were there by 1967. The quest for victory in Vietnam, considered to be vital to U.S. national security and prestige, had intensified.
  • “Pacification” and “relocation”: As the war dragged on and victory unattainable, two strategies were implemented
  • Pacification called for routing the Viet Cong (Communist guerrilla forces in South Vietnam) from an area and then wining over the people
  • This strategy gave way to relocation, which involved removing villagers from their homes, sending them to camps or to the cities, and then destroying the countryside
  • In spite of these measures, victory remained elusive
  • Antiwar movement: By 1967, the Vietnam War had taken center stage in the United States
  • Initially, intellectuals and students debated U.S. involvement in the war
  • Then pacifist organizations became involved
  • Campus demonstrations and peace marches materialized
  • In 1966, congressional hearings criticized the war
  • Even America’s allies voiced their distaste for U.S. involvement
  • Tet offensive (1968): An attack on U.S. strongholds throughout South Vietnam by the Viet Cong
  • This episode eventually developed into a military victory for the U.S.
  • Media coverage of it, however, stirred significant U.S. antiwar sentiment and tarnished Johnson’s popularity
  • Key 72: Struggle for racial equalityOverview: The crusade for civil rights became a nationwide cause during the 1960s. Blacks won political and legal rights, and segregation was largely abolished
  • Sit-ins: On February 1, 1960, four black college students sat at “whites only” counter in a Woolworth store in Greensboro, N.C., and refused to move
  • This sit-in tactic spread to other areas of the South
  • To coordinate other sit-ins, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), led by Stockely Carmichael, was formed
  • Freedom rides”:“During 1961, an interracial group, the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), organized “freedom rides” on interstate buses traveling from Washington, D.C., to New Orleans.
  • Blacks and whites challenged the segregation of buses, rest rooms, and restaurants and violence often erupted
  • The Interstate Commerce Commission ordered all interstate vehicles and terminals to be desegregated
  • James Meredith (October 1962): When the University of Mississippi refused to admit him, a federal court ordered that he be enrolled.
  • Governor Ross Barnett, a segregationist, refused to enforce the order
  • Kennedy sent federal troops to the city after rioting by whites, in defiance of the court decree, occurred
  • Governor George Wallace (1963): To prevent a court-ordered enrollment of several black students at the University of Alabama, he blocked the doorway. The students were admitted after federal marshals arrived.
  • March on Washington (August 1963): Over half a million blacks and whites, representing black and white organizations, marched to the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.
  • “Freedom summer” (1964) A major voter registration drive in the South
  • One episode exemplified the acts of violence that characterized this latter phase of the civil rights mov’t
  • Three volunteers (James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner) disappeared from Philadelphia, Mississippi, in June 1964
  • They had been murdered by members of the KKK
  • The perpetrators were eventually caught, tried, and convicted by a federal court
  • By 1970, black voters had become a force in Southern politics
  • Key 72: Struggle for racial equality
  • Malcom X: A leader of the Black Muslim mov’t whose ideology advocated black nationalism, not integration, he was killed in 1965 by a rival Muslim faction in New York City
  • “Black Power” An ideology that emphasized a range of feelings from black self-reliance to violent revolution, all emphasizing less cooperation with white society
  • Black power leaders included the SNCC’s Stokely Carmichael and H. Rap Brown
  • At the extreme end of the spectrum was Huey Newton, leader of the militant Black Panthers
  • After this shift to militancy, whites played a minor role in the civil rights mov’t
  • The black power mov’t encouraged the growth of racial pride in black America, of “black studies” in schools and colleges, and of new black literacy and artistic mov’ts
  • “Affirmative Action” Supported by President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1965, it recruited blacks for jobs to compensate for past injustices
  • In 1968, the Department of Labor ruled that every contractor doing business with the federal gov’t must submit a “written affirmative action compliance program”
  • Such guidelines eventually applied to business or institution receiving money from or doing business with the federal gov’t
  • Urban riots (1967-68): Occurring in about 75 cities, they allegedly resulted from poverty, unemployment, police brutality, and white control of business and real estate. In particular, the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1968, by James Earl Ray, kindled rioting in 40 cities
  • Key Quotation
  • I have a dream that one day…the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave-owners will be able to sit together at the table of brotherhood
  • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • March on Washington, 1963
  • Key 73: Minority equal rightsOverview: The civil rights movement also inspired Hispanics, native Americans, and gays to agitate for equality and individual “liberation”
  • Hispanics: Several groups emerged to promote their interests
  • Mexican-American Political Association: which helped to elect Kennedy
  • Brown Berets a militant organization modeled on the Black Panthers
  • La Raza Unida which promoted Hispanic candidates for public office
  • United Farm Workers, a union representing migrant farm workers led by Cesar Chavez, which conducted massive boycotts in California
  • Native Americans they had the worst housing, disease rates, and education levels of any group in American society.
  • The American Indian Movement (AIM) created during the 1960s, used black power tactics. In Washington, D.C., its members occupied the Bureau of Indian Affairs and later Wounded Knee, South Dakota, site of an 1890 Sioux massacre by U.S. soldiers
  • Lawsuits were filed against citizens in a variety of states in attempts to reclaim Indian lands taken in violation of treaties or federal laws
  • The Declaration of Indian Purpose (1961) was issued by 67 tribes in Chicago who sought to preserve their heritage
  • The National Indian Youth Council promoted Indian nation
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