BarberThe Order of Saint Lazarus and the Crusades

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  The Order of Saint Lazarus and the CrusadesAuthor(s): Malcolm BarberSource: The Catholic Historical Review, Vol. 80, No. 3 (Jul., 1994), pp. 439-456Published by: Catholic University of America PressStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25024318 Accessed: 08/09/2009 12:33 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available athttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unlessyou have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and youmay use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained athttp://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=cuap.Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printedpage of such transmission.JSTOR is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995 to build trusted digital archives for scholarship. We work with thescholarly community to preserve their work and the materials they rely upon, and to build a common research platform thatpromotes the discovery and use of these resources. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Catholic University of America Press is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Catholic Historical Review. http://www.jstor.org  TheCatholicHistoricalReview VOL.LXXXJULY,1994No.3 THEORDEROF SAINTLAZARUS ND THECRUSADESBY Malcolm Barber* Thereisaprivilegeinthecartularyof theHospital,grantedbyInnocentIVinOctober,1248,toEbrard,Bishop-electofConstance,inwhichthepoperestrainscertainreligiousorders fromexercisingtheirrightstocelebrateMassandburythedeadintheirown cemeterieswhile thediocesewasunderinterdict.Such actionshadinthepast,hesaid,beentheoccasionof much discord.1Theordersconcernedarefour:theHospitallers,theTemplars,theTeutonicKnights,andtheKnightsofSaintLazarus.Theexemptionsandpowerof thefirstthreearewellknown,but hereitcanbeseenthatamuch lessconspicuousorder,thecommunityoflepersknownasthe Order ofSaintLazarus,waspossessedofthesamekindofprivilegesgranted,forexample,totheTemplarsover acenturybefore.Moreover,sinceitisgroupedwiththethreegreatmilitaryorders of theage,itwaspresumablyregardedbythepopeas anorderof thesamekindasthese.Otherreferencesinthepapalregistersof thethirteenthcentury *Mr.Barber isareaderinmedievalhistoryintheUniversityofReading.xCartulaireg?n?raldel'OrdredesHospitaliersde SaintJeandeJ?rusalem11001310,Vol.2,?d.JosephDelavilleLeRoulx(Paris,1894;reprintMunich,1980)(henceforthCart),no.2487,p.676.Cf.no.2806,p.812(AlexanderIV,March1256). 439  440 THEORDEROF SAINT LAZARUSNDTHE CRUSADES confirmthis: InnocentIV,AlexanderIV,andClementIVwereparticularlyassiduousintheireffortstoencouragecontributions fromthefaithful,aswellasmakingovercertaincategoriesofpapalrevenuesforthe order'ssupport.2Thepopeswereindeedcorrecttoseetheorderinthesetermsfor,althoughnotendowedonthesamescaleasthe other threeorders,thebrothers ofSaintLazarusheld landsinmostofthecountriesofwesternChristendom,rangingfromEnglandtoHungary.3Insomeareastheywereparticularlywellestablished;inNormandy,forexample, theyadministeredeighthouses.4Althoughtheorder,therefore,wasfirmlyestablishedinthe midthirteenthcentury,itssrcinsareveryobscure.Thefirstclearlydatedreferenceto it inthesurvivingfragmentof itscartularyisin1142intheKingdomofJerusalem.Inthatyear,KingFulk,with theapprovalofQueenMelisendeand theirson,Baldwin,concededto the churchof SaintLazarusandtheconventof the sickwhoarecalledmiselli,anestatewhich Baldwin of Caesareagavetheminalms,...whichisbetween the Mount of Olives andtheRed Cisternontheroadwhichleadstothe RiverJordan. 5OnepossibleearlierreferenceisthegrantofacisternbyanArmenian monkcalledAbraham,who had heldit for theuseofthepoor. Thisgrantmustfallwithin thepatriarchateofWilliamIofJerusalembetween1130and1145.Herethe concessionisquiteexplicitlyto thehouse ofthelepersof SaintLazarus. 6ThesedocumentssuggestthatahospitallerordercaringmainlyorexclusivelyforleperswasestablishingitselfintheKingdomofJerusalemduringthe1ISO's.TheArmenianmonk,Abraham,becameadependent,receivingvictuals andclothing duringhis lifetimeinexchangefor thecistern.Perhapshe had becomeleprousand had founditdifficulttoremainwithin hisowncommunity.The confirmationof1142 showsthattheyweresituatedonthepilgrimroutebetweentheMountof 2Seebelow,pp.3SeeRen?P?tiet,Contribution?l'histoiredel'OrdredeSaint-LazaredeJ?rusalemenFrance(Paris, 1914),andJohnWalker,ThePatronage oftheTemplarsandtheOrderofStLazarusinEnglandin theTwelfthandThirteenth Centuries(Ph.D.thesis,Universityof St.Andrews,1990).For evidence of their establishmentinHungary,seeCart,Vol.2,no.2135,p.497.4See Andr?Mutuel, Recherchessurl'ordredeSaint-LazaredeJ?rusalemenNormandie, AnnalesdeNormandie,33(1983),121-142.^Fragmentd'un Cartulaire del'Ordre deSaint-Lazare,enTerreSainte, ?d. ArthurdeMarsy,mArchivesde l'Orientlatin,Vol.2(Paris,1884;reprintNewYork,1978),no.II,pp.123-124.Hbid,no.I,p.123.  BYMALCOLMBARBER 441Olivesand theJordan,wheretheywould have beenwellplacedtogatheralms andfrom whichtheymighttraveltobatheinthesupposedlycurativewatersof theRiverJordan.7Twoyearslaterthe orderhadbuiltahouseonthesiteand hadbegunthecultivationofvines.8By1150thebrotherswerewealthyenoughtopurchaselandelsewhere,giving1,500besants andahorsefor thirteencarucatesof landonthe BethlehemPlain.9Itseemslikelytoothatbythistimetheywereestablishedinthe house mentionedbythe OldFrenchcontinuationof Ernoul-Bernardasexistingin1187,whenSaladinconqueredthecity.Thishouseabuttedthe walls ofJerusalem,onthenorthwestcornerofthecity.Hereaposternseemstohaveleddirectlyfromthecityintotheirhospital.10Thesiteseemstohave beengrantedtothembythe Ibelins.In1148thefamilyconfirmedthe orderinpossessionoftencarucatesofland beside(secus)thewalls ofJerusalem. 11Duringthenextfortyyearstheorder,althoughnotmentionedintheaccountsofpilgrimvisitorslikeJohnofW?rzburgorTheoderich, CarnesofVitry,Bishopof Acrebetween 1216and1228,described how itwasthecustom ofpilgrimstobathe in theJordan,sanctifiedbythebaptismofChrist,aneventwhich had bestowedregenerativepoweruponallits waters. Theconsonance wasevident. Asatypeofthepurificationwhichwastocome,NaamantheSyrianwascleansedoftheleprosyin thesewaters,andhis fleshcameagainintheflesh ofalittlechild. [2 Kings5],HistoryofJerusalem,tr.AubreyStewart,PalestinePilgrims'TextSociety,Vol. 11(London, 1896),pp.130-131.The traditionwaswellestablishedbyVitry'stime,sinceGregoryof Tours describeshow,inthesixthcentury,leperstraveledtotheEastinthehopeofgainingacureby bathingin theJordanattheplaceof Christ'sbaptism beyondJericho.Indeed,heclaimedtoknow ofaleperfromGaul,calledJohn,whohadbeenrestoredtohealthasaresult.GregoryofTours,LiberinGloriaMartyrum,ed. BrunoKrusch,inMonumenta GermaniaeHist?rica,ScriptorumRerum Merovingicarum,Vol.1(Hanover,1885),caps.16-18,pp.498-499.? Fragment, no.Ill,pp.124-125.9lbid,no.VII,p.128.l0Chroniqued'Ernouletde Bernard leTr?sorier,ed.Louis de MasLatrie,Soci?t? del'Histoire de France(Paris,1871),p.200;Continuation de Guillaume deTyrde1229?1261,dite dumanuscrit deRothelin,inRecueil desHistoriens desCroisades,Occidentaux(RHCr),Vol. 2(Paris, 1859),p.500.Areferenceto adwellingforlepers, situated between the TowerofTancredand the Gate of St.Stephen,seemstohavebeen includedintheanonymousWorkonGeography,which has beenreconstructedbyJohnWilkinsoninaversionwhichcanbedatedbetween 1128 and1137.Althoughthispassagedates from sometimeafter1157itappearstohavebeenderived from theWorkonGeography,thussuggestingthataleperhouse existedatthisspotintheearly1130's,JerusalemPilgrimage1099-1185,ed.JohnWilkinson(HakluytSociety,Vol.167[London, 1988]),p.143andpp.12-15 foradiscussion of thesource.See also TheAtlasoftheCrusades,ed.JonathanRiley-Smith(London,1991),pp.44-45.n Fragment, no.V,pp.125-127.
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