Chapter 11

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Brittany Carey Ap Euro The Age of Reformation Per 8. Society and Religion ã The protestant reformation happened between emerging nation states of Europe. ã Conformity and centralization ã Beginning of states rights or local control Social and Political Conflict ã Reformation began in germany and Switzerland ã About 65 cities like kingdoms ã Mixed success and duration ã Suffered deep internal social and political divisions ã Protestant propaganda Popular Religious Movements and Criticism of th
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  Brittany CareyAp EuroPer 8.The Age of Reformation Society and Religion ã The protestant reformation happened between emerging nation states of Europe. ã Conformity and centralization ã Beginning of states rights or local control Social and Political Conflict ã Reformation began in germany and Switzerland ã About 65 cities like kingdoms ã Mixed success and duration ã Suffered deep internal social and political divisions ã Protestant propaganda Popular Religious Movements and Criticism of the Church ã Reformation could not have happened if not for the exile in Avignon, the GreatSchism, the Conciliar period, and the Renaissance papacy. ã Lots of criticism to the church ã  New postal systems and the printing press created ã More literate and curious people ã Self-sacrifice religion by the Albigensians, Waldensians, Beguines and Beghardsin the thirteenth century to the Lollards and the Hussites in the 15 th common goalof religious simplicity in imitation of jesus.   1. The Modern Devotion ã Brother’s of the Common Life (Modern Devotion) established by GerardGroote(1340-1384) centered at Zwolle and Deventer in the Netherlands. ã Sister houses were less numerous ã They fostered religious life outside formal ecclesiastical offices and apartfrom formal religious vows and this spread rapidly through northernEurope and influenced parts of southern Europe too. ã Clerics and laity came together stressing individual piety and practicalreligion. ã Worked as copyists, sponsored many religious and some classical publications, ran hospices for poor students, and conducted school for theyoung (usually boys) ã Thomas a Kempis wrote  Imitation of Christ    2. Lay Control over Religious Life ã Church offices began to fall apart ã 1520  Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation  byMartin Luther  ã Indulgences being sold   Martin Luther and German Reformation to 1525 ã Martin Luther received his master-of-arts degree in 1505 ã 1511 he moved to the Augustinian monastery in Wittenberg and earned hisdoctorate in theology 1512 1.Justification By Faith Alone  Brittany CareyAp EuroPer 8.The Age of Reformation ã Despised the phrase “righteousness of god”2.The Attack On Indulgences ã Indulgences- a remission of the temporal penalty imposed by priests on penitents as a “work of satisfaction”   for their mortalsins ã Originally given to Crusaders who had fallen in battle1476 PopSixtus IV extended indulgences to the purgatory ã Martin Luther posted his 95 thesis on the door of CastleChruch in Wittenburg on October 31,1517.3.Election Of Charles V ã Charles I succeeded his grandfather and became Emperor Charles V. ã Fugger campaign won the votes of secen electors4.Luther’s Excommunication and the Diet of Worms ã June 27 th , 1519 luther entered a debate with professor John Eck, hereluther challenged the pope and inerrancy of the church councils. ã 1520 luther signaled his new direction with three famous pamphlets:  Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, BabylonianCaptivity of the Church and Freedom of a Christian. ã June 15, 1520 Leo’s papal bull  Exsurde Domine condemned him andgave him sixty days to retract. ã  Decet Pontificen Romanum issued on January 3,1521 ã April 1521, luther presented his views to the empire’s Diet Of Worms ã May 26,1521 he was under imperial ban and became and “outlaw”5.Imperial Distractions: France and the TurksReformation helped by the emperor’s war with France & the OttomanTurks coming into Eastern EuropeBetween 1521-1559 Spain & France fought for major wars over disruptedterritories in Italy and along the borders1526 Turks took over Hungary @ the Battle of Mohacs1555 (Peace pf Augsburg) local princely control over religion in imperiallaw6.How the Reformation SpreadTwo most powerful German Protestant Rulers: the elevtor of Saxony, andthe prince of HesseBy 1530’s, Proteestant land/cities ready for war with the Catholic Emperor 7.The Peasants’ Revolt ã Peasants revolted against their masters in 1524-1525 ã Luther called these peasants “un-christian” ã 70,000-100,000 peasants were killed by the time the revolt wasended. The Reformation Elsewhere ã Switzerland & France had church reforms around the same time as Germany ã Lutheran churches developed ã The Zwingli and Swiss Reformation  Brittany CareyAp EuroPer 8.The Age of Reformation ã Switzerland has 13 “cantons” or states and allied areas ã some areas were Protestant, some were Catholic, and some were both ã Two conditions: growth of national sentiment & a desire for churchreform (since the councils of  Constance (1414-1417) and  Basel. 1.1The Reformation in Zurich ã Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) leader of the swiss reformation ã Influenced by Erasmus ã 1515 Battle of Marignano in Italy ã Against indulgences ã January 29, 1523 allowed Zwingli’s Scripture test ã Zwingli became center of swiss reformation ã One of the first examples of puritanical Protestantism.1.2The Marburg Colloquy ã Philip of Hesse (1504-1567) wanted to unite swiss and GermanProtestants. ã Christ’s body and blood (bread and wine) was only spiritually not bodily. ã October 1529 Philip brought the two Protestant leaders together inhis castle in Marburg but could not work out differences ã Luther thought of Zwigli as a dangerous fanatic1.3Swiss Civil Wars ã Civil wars began as the swiss cantons divided between religions ã Two major battles at Kappel: June 1529 & October 1531 ã First battle ended in protestant victory ã Second battle, Zwingli was wounded and executed ã Heinrich Bullinger (1504-1575) was Zwingli’s protégé andmarried his daughter  ã Heinrich then became the new leader of the Swiss Reformation2.Anabaptists and Radical Protestants ã Anabaptists- the sixteenth century ancestors of themodern Mennonites and Amish. ã rejected infant baptism ã  baptism on an adult was more respectful of humanfreedom.2.1Conrad Grebel and the Swiss Brethren ã Conrad Grebel (1498-1526) created Anabaptism performed the first adult baptism in Zurich in January1525 ã Anabaptists would not go to war, to swear oaths or  participate in secular government ã Anabaptists tried to create a community similar tothose of the first Christians2.2The Anabaptists Reign in Münster  ã 1529 rebaptism became a capital offense in the HRE  Brittany CareyAp EuroPer 8.The Age of Reformation ã Between 1525-1618 at least 1,000men and womenwere executed for rebaptizing themselves ã Polygamy started ã Many women revolted and got out of polygamistmarriages ã Protestant and Catholic armies untied to crush theradicals2.3Spiritualists ã The only religious authority was God’s spirit ã The Schwenckfeldian Church is named after Caspar Schwenkfeld2.4Antritrinitarians ã Common sense, rational, and ethical religion ã Strongest components of Calvinism John Calvin and the Genevan Reformation ã In the second half of the sixteenth century Calvinism replaced Lutheranism ã Elector Frederick III (1559-1576) ã The protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism  by Max Weber in 1904   ã John Calvin (1509-1564)1.Political Revolt and Religious Reform in Geneva ã 1535 Protestants triumphed and the traditional massand other religious practices were removed ã May 21, 1536 the city voted to adopt the reformation2.Calvin’s Geneva ã the Genevan church was organized into four offices (1) pastors therewas five (2) teachers or doctors (3) elders a group of twelve (4)deacons to dispense church goods and services to the poor and thesick. ã motivated by a desire to transform society morally. ã Geneva became home to thousands of exiled Protestants who had beendrieven out of France, England, and Scotland. More than 5,000refugees, mostly loyal to Calvin, eventually making up one third of the population of Geneva. ã the laws here severely punished men who beat their wives named“women’s paradise” Political Consolidation of the Lutheran Reformation ã Lutheranism has political triumph by the 1550’s.The Diet of Augsburg ã a meeting of Protestant & Catholic representatives toimpose a settlement of religious divisions ã all Lutherans must convert to Catholicism ã February 1531 Lutherans created the SchmalkaldicLeague (Ausburg Confession)
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