Chapter 27 Study Guide

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Chapter 27 Study Guide By Henggao Cai You will be taking an exam consisting of 50 multiple-choice questions each worth two points. You should be well versed in the following topics: 1) Soviet concerns at the end of World War II a) The Soviet Union was afraid of another Western invasion. First, Neapolitan‟s France invaded Russia. Then Hitler‟s Germany invaded the Soviet Union or formerly Russia. b) Stalin led the Soviet Union to rebuild for security; therefore, they demanded defensible borders an
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  Chapter 27 Study GuideBy Henggao CaiYou will be taking an exam consisting of 50 multiple-choice questions each worth twopoints. You should be well versed in the following topics:1)   Soviet concerns at the end of World War IIa)   The Soviet Union was afraid of another Western invasion. First, Neapolitan‟s Franceinvaded Russia. Then Hitler‟s Germany invaded the Soviet Union or formerly Russia. b)   Stalin led the Soviet Union to rebuild for security; therefore, they demanded defensibleborders and political stability in the regions closest to them.2)   American fears at the end of World War IIa)   America came out of World War 2 as the world‟s greatest nation and was afraid of the growing communist threat because it wanted to spread equality, liberty, and democracy. The United States viewed communism, socialism, dictatorship as threats to America‟s democracy and liberty.b)   One of America‟s fears came true when Josef Stalin possessed almost absolute powers. 3)   Issues that arose between the US and Soviet Union immediately following WWIIa)   The United States and the Soviet Union relations soured when the public officials and themedia pointed out that Germany and Russia had similarities. Such similarities includetotal control over communications and the ability to eliminate political opposition. Theyalso pointed out that both nations used terror to silence protesters.b)   Both the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany created inhumane camps.c)   The United States believed Capitalism, a type of ideology, would prevail overCommunism. Stalin, dictator of the Soviet Union, said that Communist system wouldprevail over Capitalism.d)   Then Winston Churchill said that a Iron curtain has been covered all of Europe and it isthe duty of English Speaking Nations to contain the Soviet Union.4)   Polanda)   The Soviet Union wanted Poland to be under the communist influence and system.b)   The United States wanted Poland to have its own self-governing government.5)   Yaltaa)   This conference decided how to deal with Germany after the war.b)   FDR, Churchill, and Stalin attended the conference.6)   Potsdama)   A post war conferencei)   Issued a warning to Japan to surrender unconditionallyii)   To hold war crime trials of Nazi Leaders(1)   Nuremburg Trials7)   Churchill‟s Iron Curtain speech  a)   Churchill said that Europe has been split into two ideological halves. One half isDemocratic and free and the other half is heavily controlled and Communist.b)   He said it was the duty of the English speaking peoples to stop the Communist threat.8)   Kennana)   He was responsible for coining the concept of America‟s containment policy toward theSoviet Union‟s ideological belief known as Communism.  9)   Truman Doctrinea)   The Truman Doctrine said that it was the United States‟ goal to support free peoples resisting subjugating by armed minorities. Congress passed the Truman foreign aid billthat appropriated $400 million for military and economic aid to Turkey and Greece.10)   Containmenta)   The Truman administration adopted this policy because they want to stop the spread of  the Soviet Union‟s Communist ideologies. The first test of this policy was in Korea. The North Korean forces under Kim il Sung had almost took control of the entire peninsula,but the United States led the United Nations to push the North Korean army back. Thiswas successful because it showed containment had worked.11)   The Marshall Plana)   This plan called for the United States to pour billions of dollars into the recovery inEurope because the United States want to prevent more countries from turningcommunist.b)   Secretary of State Marshall developed this plan.12)   Berlin Airlifta)   The Soviet Union has cut off Berlin from West Germany. Therefore, America and GreatBritain decides to fly supplies in and out of Berlin because Berlin is within Sovietcontrolled East Germany.13)   NSC-68a)   Explains that the Truman Administration intends on stopping the Soviet Union at allcostsb)   It also explains that the United States has the military capabilities of stopping the SovietUnion in case it invades the Western Hemisphere.c)   It also justifies United States involvement by saying that America is the defender of thefree world including its principles of freedom, liberty, and democracy.14)   Communism in Chinaa)   After the Second World War, the Communists and the Nationalists continued its CivilWar that started in 1925. However, the Soviet Union assisted Mao Zedong and theCommunists by supplying them with weapons and military expertise. The United Statessupplied Chiang-Kai Shek and the Nationalists with military expertise and weapons.b)   Chiang Kai Shek lost and led the Nationalists to Taiwan where he continued to run theRepublic of China. The United States continued to recognize the government underChiang Kai Shek as the government running all of China until 1972.15)   Korean War and Trumana)   Truman did not use a Declaration of War because the war was a „police action‟ to enforce a UN Security Council resolution.i)   They could only pass this resolution because the Soviet delegation temporarilyboycotted the Security Council.b)   On July 25, 1950, the North Korean Army launched a surprise attack on South Korea.i)   However, the US led army pushed the North Korean army as far back as the Yalu River. Then the People‟s Liberation army led by Mao Zedong pushed the UN troops back. They reached a near stalemate near the 38 th Parallel.c)   Even though the Korean War stalemated, the United States was the ultimate winnerbecause it proved that containment worked. In addition, the United States also stopped anentire communist takeover of Korea.  16)   Ho Chi Minh and Vietnam during the early cold wara)   After the Suez Canal Crisis, the United States replaced Britain and France as a majorpower in world affairs. President Eisenhower announced that the United States pledged toprovide economic and military aid to any Middle Eastern country that was under threatfrom Communism.i)   In 1958, Eisenhower pledged to help Lebanon by breaking up a conflict betweenChristians and Muslims.17)   Truman and Eisenhower‟s administrations and dealings with the Middle east  a)   Both President Truman and Eisenhower worked hard to maintain access to petroleumresources, access to military bases, and lines communication in the Middle East. Theymaintained all these connections and attempted to deny the Soviet Union from theseassets.18)   American involvement in Latin Americaa)   Cubai)   Fidel Castro confiscated all US property.(1)   As a result, President Eisenhower cut off all exports and severed economic ties.(a)   Because of Eisenhower‟s response, Castro turned to the Soviet Union. 19)   Eisenhower Doctrinea)   President Eisenhower pledged military and economic aid to any Middle Eastern countrythreatened by Communism.i)   His first test of this doctrine was in Lebanon.(1)   There was a civil war in Lebanon.(a)   The fighting was between Christians and Muslims.(i)   President Eisenhower sent 14000 marines to Lebanon to prevent such awar.1.   These 14000 marines propped up a right wing government becausethere is a huge vacuum in the Middle East. The United States must fillit first before the Russians do.20)   Policy of Massive Retaliation  –  what it was and who did ita)   Secretary of State Dulles advocated for a greater reliance on nuclear weapons and airpower and spending less on the conventional army and navy. This was a idea would savemoney and balance the federal budget and increase pressure on potential enemies. In1953, the United States developed the Hydrogen bomb. Then the Soviets also developedthe Hydrogen bomb. This plan was more like mutual extinction. Even though this planprevented all-out war between two big superpowers, the plan could not prevent the smallbrushfires from occurring in Africa, Southeast Asia and the Middle East.21)   Truman‟s loyalty program  a)   On March 21, 1947, President Truman signed an executive order that set up a program tocheck the loyalty of Federal Employees. He wanted Federal Employees to demonstrate “Unswerving loyalty”. i)   As a result loyalty boards were set up in every Federal department. These Loyaltyboards depended on the investigations by the Federal Bureau of Investigations. If there existed reasonable grounds, then the employee will be dismissed.ii)   An employee can appeal to the Loyalties appeal board set up by the Civil ServiceCommission.  (1)   As a result, this quieted many criticisms from the Republican Party that Trumanwas too soft on the Communists.22)   HUAC  –  Members and accusationsa)   The House Committee on Un American Activities questioned members of the screenactors guild in Hollywood because they felt that the screen writers and directors wereable to brain wash the American people easier if they had been communist spies.23)   Spies of the time24)   Joseph McCarthy and McCarthyisma)   The People of Wisconsin elected Joseph McCarthy to the United States Senate. In hisfirst term of Office, McCarthy exacerbated the Red Scare by delivering a speech that toldthe American public about two hundred communists within the state department.b)   He exacerbated the problem and created fear and panic. He painted a picture in the American people‟s minds that communism is bad and McCarthyism is Americanism. c)   Because of Joe McCarthy‟ s actions, the Americans started scrutinizing employees andworkers. In New York, Subway workers were laid off because they failed to answerquestions about their political leanings.25)   Second Red Scarea)   The Second Red Scare occurred after World War 2 when the Iron Curtain separatedWestern Europe and Eastern Europe.i)   This second red scare resulted in many employees laid off by employers because of the suspicion of communism.ii)   This was a result of the Soviet Union testing its first atomic bomb and a fear of communist invasion by the Soviet Union. This fear was exacerbated when MaoZedong and Communists won the Chinese Civil War.26)   Eisenhower interstate highway systema)   Eisenhower wanted to create an interstate highway system that could evacuate the peoplefrom large cities in case of a nuclear attack. He got this idea from the German interstatehighway system when he was serving as general of the allied forces in Europe. He sawhow convenient it was for the military to travel from one side of the country to the otherside of the country.b)   Another effect that came with the Interstate highway system was the fast food industry.McDonalds spread across the country by using the Interstate highway system.27)   Vietnam and US attitudes toward it as well as involvementa)   As a communist organizer and a revolutionary, Ho Chi Min sought to expel the Japaneseinvaders from Vietnam.i)   Ho Chi Min established the Democratic Republic of Vietnam by 1945.(1)   The French and the Vietnamese began fighting because France wanted to regainVietnam as a colony.(a)   This war was a larger Cold war battle because of the Democratic ideals of France and the Communist ideals of Vietnam.(i)   However, President Truman recognized the French‟s puppet government in Vietnam because he believed that Ho Chi Min was taking orders fromMoscow. Therefore, the United States in 1954 was already taking more than three quarters of the cost of France‟s Indochina war. 1.   July 26,1950a.   President Truman authorizes $15 million of aid to France.
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