Clean milk production

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1. CLEAN MILK PRODUCTION<br />(in farmer’s premises)<br />Contents<br />1. Indian Dairy Industry………………………………………<br…
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  • 1. CLEAN MILK PRODUCTION<br />(in farmer’s premises)<br />Contents<br />1. Indian Dairy Industry………………………………………<br />2. SWOT analysis of Indian Dairy Industry<br />3. Need for producing clean milk………………………………<br />4. Basic concepts in milk production…………………………….. <br />- Milk and its Composition.<br /> - Milking.<br /> - Lactation.<br /> - Milking intervals, frequency, routines, methods <br /> and systems. <br />5. Milk hygiene……………………………………...................<br />Udder infection.<br />Cleaning milk production equipment.<br />Water supplies.<br />Detergents and disinfects.<br />Milking premises.<br />Daily routines.<br />6. Clean milk production in the farmer’s premises........................ <br /> <br /> - Source hygiene and preparations (in general)<br /> - Milking environment or cattle shed hygiene.<br /> - Animal hygiene.<br /> - Hygienic measures to be followed while milking.<br /> - Feed and water hygiene.<br /> - Utensil hygiene.<br /> - Utility hygiene.<br />7. Mastitis……………………………………………………<br /> - What is mastitis and its types.<br /> - Causes of mastitis.<br /> - Elimination of infection.<br /> - Tests for mastitis.<br /> - Treatment of mastitis.<br /> - Methods to control mastitis.<br /> - Mastitis awareness.<br /> - Antibiotic residues issue and farmer role.<br />8. Ensuring milk hygiene in Indian conditions…………………………………<br />- Educational propaganda.<br />- Incentive payment plan.<br />- Concept of organic milk.<br />- Establishment of quality task force.<br />- Technological intervention.<br /> - DPIP studies and management system.<br />9. Organic milk-the new world milk………………..<br />References…………………………………………………….<br />CHAPTER 1 <br />INDIAN DAIRY INDUSTRY<br />Vijetha B.T.<br />The dairy sector in India is very complex and astounding. The country has plains with long tradition of milk production and consumption and on the other hand, there are forest and hilly regions with no tradition of dairying. Most of coastal belts also do not have much of dairy tradition. She has a population of more than 1 billion with diverse food habits, cultures, traditions and religions, regional variations within the country. Cow is more than 80 per cent of the livestock population of India. Cow slaughter is banned in many states of India except Kerala and West Bengal. There are no restrictions on buffalo culling (articlesbase, 2009). Till about year 2000, India was not on the radar screen of most international dairy companies. This is because she was neither a major importer nor an exporter of dairy products. From 2000 onwards, Indian dairy products, particularly milk powder, casein, whey products and ghee started making their presence felt in global markets. <br /> <br />Even though, planned development of the dairy sector started with the launch of the first five-year plan in 1951, policies and programmes under the first three five-year plans (1951–66) were inadequate to influence milk production and milk output continued to be stagnant. By the end of the third five-year plan these inadequacies were apparent and the government made serious policy reorientation to ensure sustained increase in milk production. Development of rural milk sheds through milk producers’ co-operatives and movement of processed milk to urban demand centres became the foundation of government policy. This policy found institutionalization in the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) and was translated into action by the Operation Flood Project and the nation-wide milk co-operative network promoted under the project, for marketing the rurally produced milk and by this process milk production suddenly increased. <br />India’s dairy has a long history which started with processing of an insignificant 200,000 litres per day (lpd) of milk in 1951, presently the organized sector is handling some 20 million lpd in over 400 dairy plants and today India is producing more than 100 million tons of milk per annum. India ranks 1st in the world in milk production. Our per capita milk consumption is around 250 g per day. India is expected to maintain last year’s record of being the world’s largest milk producer, with an estimated 110 million tonnes in 2008-09. <br />Within the country, farmers’ milk cooperatives showed a better performance. They procure about 9.2 million tonnes, an increase of 9.7 per cent over the previous year, handling over 14 per cent of the national marketable surplus. The cooperative sector covered about 21 per cent of the country’s villages and over 18 per cent of the total milk-producing households in rural areas.<br /> India’s milk production will continue to grow at about 3 per cent per annum inspite of many difficulties such as stagnant livestock herd size and shortage of fodder. Due to increasing population, per capita availability of milk will increase by only about 1.5 per cent per annum which will be grossly inadequate compared with the economy growing at 6 per cent per annum. Production growth is only 3 per cent but consumption growth is more than double the rate of production which will obviously leads to a mismatch between demand and supply. This will create opportunities for international dairy companies and great opportunities for branded dairy products to enter this huge market of more than a billion people in India (Chawla et al., 2009).<br />In our country, milk production takes place in small and very small holdings i.e. approximately 70 million households that scattered throughout the country. The marginal producers and smallholders, who account for some 78% of all land holdings, constitute to the major milk production sector. They own more than 60% of all milch animals (The milk-animal group in India consists of buffalo, cattle and goats). In India, many small-scale farmers engaged in livestock enterprise in order to improve their livelihoods. Regular milk sales allow them to move from subsistence to a market based income. But there is a significant threat that the poorer livestock producers who will be crowded out and left behind if the global livestock sector is keep changing rapidly like this with a strong and growing demand, rapid institutional and macroeconomic policy changes. Appropriate national and international policy framework is needed to prevent threat to Indian dairy industry in general and dairy farmer in particular.<br /> Inadequacy of official data about livestock population is a perennial problem with most developing countries but fortunately, in India this problem is not as severe as we have one of the oldest and most reliable census systems in the world. India conducts a fairly reliable livestock survey regularly from which its approximate livestock population known till today and will go on so in future also. <br />The decade of 2000-2010 will be recorded in dairy history as the decade of exports. But, the next decade will be different as. India is finding it difficult to sustain exports of dairy products due to low global prices and high domestic prices. Since India producing large quantity of milk surplus to Indian market, it can compete globally in future in terms of export if Indian dairy industry made more organized, produces clean and hygienic milk and become consumer friendly by reducing domestic prices which will indirectly reduce her import and promote export of dairy products in future. <br />CHAPTER 2<br />SWOT ANALYSIS OF INDIAN DAIRY INDUSTRY<br />Vijetha B.T. and Subin K. Mohan<br />SWOT (Strengths, Weakness, Threats, and Opportunities) analysis of the current dairy scenario of the country would reveal the following:<br />Strengths:-<br />The vast livestock population is a vital asset for the country which will sustain and continue to propel Indian economy in future.<br />Purchasing power of consumers is increasing with growing economy and continuously increasing population of middle class.<br />Increasing demand for milk production since milk consumption in India is now a regular part of the diet.<br />Crop residues and agricultural byproducts on which Indian dairy farming largely thrives keep the input cost low.<br />Labour cost in India is also fairly low makes industry cost competitive.<br />Plenty of highly trained and qualified technical manpower is available at all levels to support R&D as well as industry operation.<br />Large number of dairy plants in all sectors is coming up.<br />There is a vast scope for improvement of milk production as the productivity of our animals is low. <br />Our dairy industry continues to grow and the margins are still fairly reasonable.<br />Our dairy products could compete globally on the price front in future since our dairy farmers not receiving any subsidy and if world dairy market opens up post WTO negotiations.<br /> Buffalo is the India’s milking machine accounting for more than half of the milk production which is notable for its efficiency as a converter of course feeds into rich milk.<br /> Dairy industry provides employment and supplementary income to the rural families.<br />Weakness:-<br />Milk production system in many parts of India is still largely dominated by low yielding animals.<br />Poor condition of roads and erratic power supply is a major challenge for procurement and supply of good quality raw milk.<br />Under developed raw milk collection systems is there in certain parts of country.<br />Quality of milk is low, which is not up to the international standards.<br />Limited market support.<br />Limited investment in dairy industry.<br />Neglected animal health cover.<br />Poor infrastructure for transportation, processing and distribution.<br />Absence of comprehensive and reliable milk production data and no matching between investment and profit in the industry.<br />Unawareness of scientific dairy farming, clean milk production and value chain.<br />Inability to feed the cattle throughout the year.<br />Inadequate training in modern cattle management.<br />Seasonal fluctuations in milk production patterns.<br /> Regional imbalance in milk supply.<br /> Species wise variations in milk quality.<br /> Maintenance of cold chain from collection point to destination is still a major handicap.<br />Opportunities<br />Expanding market will create enormous job and self employment opportunities.<br />Increase in investment opportunities as economy is growing at the rate of 8% of GDP.<br />Increased export potential for indigenous milk products.<br />Increasing demand for dairy products becomes income elastic.<br />Transform the quality of life in rural India.<br />Utilization of byproducts of the dairy industry for manufacturing value added products (VAP) for world market.<br />Threats<br />Excessive grazing pressure on lands resulting in its complete degradation.<br />Indiscriminate cross breeding to meet the increasing milk demand leads to disappearance of valuable indigenous breeds e.g. Haryana breed.<br />Unorganized dairy industry handling 85% of milk produced, remain the key issue to be addressed.<br />The role of middleman in dairy business activities is still very large threat.<br />Lack of awareness among farmers about milk quality parameters.<br />Export of quality feed ingredients making the domestic producers rely on low energy fodders.<br />Adulterated liquid milk in certain pockets of India need to be prevented at the initial level itself.<br />Entry of multinationals into dairy industry resulted in milk diverting towards VAP in large proportion, likely to affect the availability of liquid milk for mass consumption in future.<br />To curb Global warming due to increased methane production from dairy animals, it is required to replace the large number of less quality livestock with less number of high quality animals.<br />CHAPTER 3<br />NEED FOR PRODUCING CLEAN MILK<br />Subin K.Mohan, K.M.Dileepkumar, Ani Bency Jacob, Vijetha B.T.<br />Milk production in India is growing at 4% per year, and at present India contributes 15% of the total global milk production. The country boasts of nearly 300 million dairy cattle. India is having dual distinction in the dairy segment by being both the world's largest milk producer as well as largest milk consumer. Dairy sector contribution is around 65-70% to livestock sector (Naware, 2007). Despite of its immense dairy wealth, India has to travel a long distance to acquire a good position in terms of milk quality. The need for quality begins at the farm where milk is produced. If milk is not produced hygienically it can affect the health of many people.<br />One of the most important factors of milk production is its quality but, we can say that milk quality is a relative term, as the consumers perception about milk quality is changing day to day and from person to person. There are many misconcepts regarding milk quality among the common people and to many, it may refer to fat content as, it is believed that thicker the milk better it is. But, this will not be the perception of a pioneer in this field, say a microbiologist, who will totally disagree or recommend discarding the milk, if the bacterial load is in millions or more than the specifications, whatever is the fat content. But, a child may refuse to drink milk if it smells, irrespective of the good fat content and the negligible bacterial load. Therefore, in order to produce milk of various acceptable parameters, it is necessary to face this issue on various fronts evenly.<br />Another important factor that affects milk quality is contamination. Besides being a health hazard, contamination of milk can lead to huge economical losses. Sterile milk is secreted from the udder. But, contamination of milk is occurred at different levels like at farm, during collection and storage, and at processing centers. There is every chance for rapid proliferation of harmful microorganisms as the essential nutrients in milk is an ideal medium for microbial growth. Milk needs to be protected from all possible sources of microbial contamination and various types of disease organisms. Therefore, the employment of hygienic practices at the time of milking is one of the first and most important steps in clean milk production.<br />WHAT IS CLEAN MILK?<br />‘Clean Milk’ is defined as milk drawn from the udder of healthy animals, which is collected in clean dry milking pails and free from extraneous matters like dust, dirt, flies, hay, manure etc. Clean milk has a normal composition, possesses a natural milk flavour with low bacterial count and is safe for human consumption (Sinha, 2000).<br />Clean milk production results in milk that:<br />Is safe for human consumption and free from disease producing microorganisms.<br />Has a high keeping quality.<br />Has a high commercial value.<br />Can be transported over long distances.<br />Is a high quality base product for processing, resulting in high quality products.<br />Dairy farmers must aim at maximizing the milk production and output from their dairy herd. At the same time, the farmer must ensure that milk is produced in clean and hygienic conditions. They should always bear in mind that the milk produced should fit for human consumption and it ensures human health. It is essential to aware people including the producers and consumers that even though milk is essentially sterile at the point of production, it is a very nutritious medium for microbial growth, and spoils very quickly if not handled properly. It becomes contaminated during milking, cooling and storage, and milk is an excellent medium for bacteria, yeasts and moulds that are the common contaminants. Their rapid growth, particularly at high ambient temperatures can cause marked deterioration, spoiling the milk for liquid consumption or manufacture into dairy products. Problems occur if poor hygienic practices are employed. All the above factors make the milk unsuitable for human consumption and finally it is an economical loss to the farmer. The following reasons will justify why every farmer should strive to produce clean and wholesome milk:<br />Farmers are not paid for the milk which is rejected in the market. <br />In effect, their labour and other inputs used in producing this milk will become useless. <br />Dirty milk will have low keeping quality and if it cannot be used quickly, then it is thrown away and lost as useless food. <br />CHAPTER 4<br />BASIC CONCEPTS IN MILK PRODUCTION<br />Subin K.Mohan, K.M.Dileepkumar, Ani Bency Jacob, Vijetha B.T.<br />The knowledge of milk and its production is essential for producing clean milk and the farmers should be aware of it. Nowadays, the dairy sector is changing from the ancient perception of milk production for household usage to the modern perception of commercial or large scale milk production. Farmers are seeking more information about clean milk production. Apart from the basics of clean milk production, they should be provided with the information regarding the basic concepts in milk production. This chapter is intended for the above purpose.<br />WHAT IS MILK?<br />Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. <br /><ul><li>Milk is the main product from a dairy enterprise
  • 2. It is produced basically as food for human consumption.
  • 3. It provides the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food.
  • 4. It is also an essential nutritive diet for humans.
  • 5. The early lactation milk is known as colostrum, and carries the mother's antibodies to the baby.
  • 6. It can reduce the risk of many diseases in the baby.
  • 7. The exact components of raw milk vary by species, but it contains significant amounts of saturated fat, protein and calcium as well as vitamin C.
  • 8. Cattle's milk has a pH ranging from 6.4 to 6.8, making it slightly acidic.</li></ul>Composition of milk<br /> The composition of milk varies due to different factors such as the breed of cow, feeding, climate, and time of the year. Milk contains various nutrients like proteins, fats, carbohydrates, water, vitamins, minerals etc. The exact milk composition is given below.<br />TABLE<br />2) EFFECTIVE MILKING<br />Dairy farmers, with varying levels of skill, knowledge and resources, maximize returns from milk production by influencing lactation through selective breeding and control of reproduction, nutrition, disease and general management. The methods of milking have a particularly important effect because a cow cannot secrete more milk than the removed milk. Thus, maximizing milk removal in ways which are economic will take fullest advantage of secretion potential.<br />3) LACTATION<br />Lactation includes both milk secretion and storage in alveolar cells and ducts within the mammary gland, followed by milk ejection (let-down) and milk removal. Milk secretion is continuous and usually at a constant rate for at least 12 hours resulting in a gradual increase in internal udder pressure. Milk ejection is a neuro-hormonal reflex initiated by various stimuli at milking time. These stimuli, which reflect good husb
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