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Counterculture . And Other Protest M ovements . The Counterculture. AKA- “Hippies” Origins in the social and political events of the 1950’s The Beat Movement emphasized freedom from materialism and importance of personal experience
Counterculture And Other Protest Movements The Counterculture
  • AKA- “Hippies”
  • Origins in the social and political events of the 1950’s
  • The Beat Movement emphasized freedom from materialism and importance of personal experience
  • Civil Rights Movement introduced the idea of social and political protest and the anti-war movement
  • Movements challenged people to question traditional boundaries and cultural norms
  • Also heightened distrust of authority
  • Made up of “Baby Boomers”
  • The Counterculture
  • Values: youth, spontaneity, and freedom of expression
  • Promoted peace, love, and freedom
  • Experimented with new styles of dress and music
  • Had freer attitudes toward sex and drugs
  • Trinity of Counterculture
  • Sex, Drugs, and Rock n’ Roll
  • Music, art, movies, literature geared toward the youth reflected their sense of rebellion
  • Sexual Revolution- called for a separation from traditional family life
  • Communes- small communities where people shared common interests and resources
  • Generation gap
  • Ideals and values were so different between parents and young people of the baby boom generation
  • Generation Gap- lack of understanding and communication between older and younger generations
  • One poll showed that majority of people over 30 opposed premarital sex; the majority of people under 29 did not
  • Haight-Ashbury
  • District in San Francisco
  • Became a center of counterculture community
  • Speakers like Timothy Leary said that drugs could free the mind and encouraged young people to “tune in”, “turn on”, and “drop out”
  • Many counterculture members sought other forms of spiritual enlightenment
  • Buddhism and other Eastern religions
  • Counterculture ends
  • Unfortunately, by the end of the 60’s many had become disillusioned by the excesses of the culture
  • Use of drugs lead to increased drug abuse  increased crime rates and increased deaths from overdose
  • Many famous musicians died from overdose (i.e.- Jimi Hendrix and Janis Joplin while only in their twenties)
  • Motives/values became increasingly shallow and self-centered
  • By the end of the decade most hippies had returned to mainstream society
  • Women’s Rights Movement
  • 1960’s-70’s- The second wave of Feminism
  • Theory of political, economic, and social equality among men and women
  • Civil Rights Movement prompted women to look at the way they were judged and treated in society
  • Brought black and white women together- strengthening both causes
  • Number of working women grew during the 50’s and 60’s- women were looking for more and better opportunities
  • Women’s rights movement
  • National Organization for Women (NOW)
  • Established by Betty Friedan (author of The Feminine Mystique)
  • Popularized the movement
  • Sought to pass the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
  • Supposed to be passed in the early 20’s
  • Also sought to pass reproductive protection laws
  • Two types of feminists:
  • Those following the values of NOW- seeking political and legislative change
  • Radical Feminists- seeking to raise public awareness
  • Engaged in small, conscious-raising efforts and protests
  • i.e.- protesting Miss America Pageants, Playboy
  • Women’s rights movement
  • Opposition came from men and women
  • Some women thought the movement was an assault on family, marriage, and children
  • Women like Phyllis Schlafly fought to keep the ERA from passing, fearing that it would compel women to fight in the military, end sex-segregated bathrooms, and hurt the family
  • Unfortunately the ERA fell short of passing and did not become a constitutional amendment
  • Women’s rights movement
  • Lasting effects:
  • Expansion of women’s roles and opportunities
  • Gained new legal rights (i.e.- Title VII)
  • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
  • Title IX- of the Higher Education Act of 1972 banned discrimination in education
  • Equal Credit Opportunity Act
  • 1973- Roe v. Wade
  • Latino Rights Movement
  • Increased Latino population
  • Immigration restrictions of Europeans appeared after WWI
  • After WWII, growing demand for inexpensive labor (Braceros Program)
  • Decreased opportunities in Latin America
  • 1950’s- Latinos were being targeted for deportation, looking for migrants who were there illegally
  • 1965- Immigration and Nationality Act- eliminated national-origin quotas
  • By the 1970’s over 600,000 Mexican migrants came to the U.S.
  • Latino Rights Movement
  • Latinos and other minorities had faced discrimination for a long time
  • Movement for change was inspired by the Civil Rights Movement
  • Demanded better working conditions, salaries, educational opportunities
  • Sought federal protection of their right to vote and campaigned to elect politicians who represented them and their interests
  • Latino Rights Movement
  • Cesar Chavez- the most influential Latino activist
  • Fought for rights for farm workers
  • 1962- organized a farmworkers’ union in Delano, CA
  • Late 1960’s- merged with a Filipino farmworkers union which became the United Farm Workers (UFW)
  • He was committed to non-violence
  • Implemented many worker strikes and consumer boycotts
  • Latino Rights Movement
  • Chicano Movement
  • Broader social and political movement
  • Dedicated to increasing Latino awareness of their history and culture
  • Others focused on quality of life issues (reducing poverty and discrimination)
  • La RazaUnida
  • Political Party in Texas formed by Jose Angel Gutierrez
  • Organized for better housing and jobs
  • Successfully supported Latino political candidates
  • Native American Rights
  • Youth took the lead in the movement for change for Native Americans
  • National Indian Youth Council (NIYC)- formed in 1961 to protect native fishing rights
  • Over time the group expanded to include broad civil rights for all Native Americans
  • 1968- American Indian Movement founded by Chippewa activists
  • Helped those living in urban ghettos
  • Addressed the rights of securing land, legal rights, and self-government for Native Americans
  • Native American Rights
  • Dissatisfaction grew with the government and activists became more militant
  • 1969- a group occupied the island of Alcatraz (former site of a federal prison) and gained control of the land until 1971
  • 1973- Siege and Wounded Knee
  • AIM organized and occupation of the village, demanding that the government reexamine the conditions of reservations
  • The standoff ended with two AIM members dead
  • The government did agree to reexamine the conditions
  • Indian Self Determination Act of 1975- gave tribes more control over resources and education on reservations
  • Asian American Rights
  • Japanese American Citizens League- founded in 1929 worked for decades to receive compensation for property lost during the internment camps of WWII
  • Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments also provided aid to Asian immigrants
  • Environmental Movement
  • Also inspired by the many civil rights movements
  • People began to realize that we were not only harming the environment, but people themselves
  • Coal smog, acid rain, poisonous human byproduct, DDT, nuclear waste = toxic waste
  • 1962- biologist Rachel Carson releases her book, Silent Spring
  • Her work convinced Congress to restrict the use of pesticides (specifically DDT) and spurred widespread environmental activism
  • Earth Day- enacted in 1970, April 22
  • Environmental Movement
  • Nixon and Congress create the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1970
  • Also signed environmental laws such as, Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Endangered Species Act
  • President Ford continued in Nixon’s footsteps by creating the Nuclear Registry Commission in 1974
  • Environmental Movement
  • After the 70’s many began to wonder if there were too many environmental restrictions
  • Companies began illegally dumping waste
  • Nuclear energy and oil spills created more problems
  • Some felt it was a violation of private property rights
  • Fear that too much regulation would inhibit jobs and businesses
  • Related Search
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