Dehydration review (HSL)

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HSL HARPUR HILL, BUXTON, DERBYSHIRE, SK17 9JN Telephone: 01298 218000 Dehydration Review Report Number HSL/2005/29 Project Leader: Damian Bethea Author(s): Shuna Powell and Damian Bethea Science Group: Human Factors Group ©Crown Copyright 2005 PRIVACY MARKING: D Available to the Public HSL report approval: Date of issue: Job number: Nick Vaughan July 2005 JS2004344 2 Contents 1 GLOSSARY OF TERMS__________________________________________6 2 3 INTRODUCTION_______________________________
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    © Crown Copyright 2005 HSL HARPUR HILL, BUXTON, DERBYSHIRE, SK17 9JN Telephone: 01298 218000 Dehydration ReviewReport NumberHSL/2005/29 Project Leader: Damian Bethea Author(s): Shuna Powell and Damian Bethea Science Group: Human Factors Group   2PRIVACY MARKING: D Available to the PublicHSL report approval: Nick VaughanDate of issue: July 2005Job number: JS2004344    Contents   1   GLOSSARY OF TERMS__________________________________________6   2   INTRODUCTION________________________________________________7   3   THERMOREGULATION AND THE IMPORTANCE OFHOMEOSTASIS_____________________________________________________8  3.1 D EFINITIONS ________________________________________________83.2 T EMPERATURE SENSITIVE NEURONS ______________________________83.3 T HE MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN HEAT BALANCE _____________________83.4 H OMEOSTASIS _______________________________________________9 4   SWEATING AND SWEAT RATES________________________________11  4.1 T HE B IOCHEMISTRY AND P HYSIOLOGY OF S WEATING _______________114.2 T HE EVAPORATION OF SWEAT __________________________________12 5   DEHYDRATION _______________________________________________13  5.1 T HE P HYSIOLOGICAL COST OF DEHYDRATION ______________________135.2 M EASUREMENT OF DEHYDRATION ______________________________155.3 E STIMATING T OTAL S WEAT L OSS _______________________________16 6   EFFECTS OF DEHYDRATION ON HUMAN PERFORMANCE ______17  6.1 P HYSIOLOGICAL TOLERANCE TO HEAT STRAIN DURING EXERCISE _______176.2 H EALTH E FFECTS ___________________________________________176.3 C ARDIAC E FFECTS OF D EHYDRATION ____________________________176.4 S ALT DEPLETION DEHYDRATION ________________________________186.5 O VER BREATHING ___________________________________________186.6 D EHYDRATION UNDER COMPRESSED AIR _________________________186.7 C OGNITIVE EFFECT DUE TO DEHYDRATION ________________________186.8 O THER MEDICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF DEHYDRATION _______________19 Medications or drugs that may affect heat tolerance include: ________19   Aggravating factors for dehydration: ___________________________20  6.9 H IDROMEIOSIS _____________________________________________206.10 S WEAT G LAND FATIGUE ______________________________________20 7   PHYSICAL ABILITY TO TOLERATE DEHYDRATION ____________21  7.1 T HE BENEFITS OF ACCLIMATION ________________________________217.2 C ORE T EMPERATURE AND D EHYDRATION ________________________217.3 E FFECTS OF AGE ON DEHYDRATION TOLERANCE AND HEAT STRESS _____227.4 E FFECTS OF P HYSICAL F ITNESS ON D EHYDRATION T OLERANCE ________227.5 E FFECTS OF H EALTH S TATUS ON D EHYDRATION T OLERANCE _________237.6 E FFECTS OF G ENDER ON D EHYDRATION T OLERANCE ________________237.7 E FFECT OF PREGNANCY ON DEHYDRATION ________________________24 8   LIMITS OF DEHYDRATION ____________________________________25  8.1 R E - HYDRATION C ONSIDERATIONS ______________________________258.2 C UMULATIVE DEHYDRATION __________________________________268.3 P ERSONAL P ROTECTIVE CLOTHING : _____________________________268.4 V OLUNTARY OR P OSITIVE R E - HYDRATION ________________________268.5 A CCLIMATISATION __________________________________________278.6 R E - HYDRATION P ROCEDURE ___________________________________28 9   CONCLUSIONS________________________________________________30   10   RECOMMENDATIONS _________________________________________31      11   REFERENCES _________________________________________________33  
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