Fort Sumter

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Fort Sumter. (April 12–14, 1861). South Carolina secedes….calls on the Union to give up their forts in S.C.’s territory. Four more states Secede 8.Virginia (April 17; referendum May 23, 1861) 9. Arkansas (May 6) 10. Tennessee (May 7; referendum June 8) 11. North Carolina. 75,000 Union troops
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Fort Sumter (April 12–14, 1861) South Carolina secedes….calls on the Union to give up their forts in S.C.’s territory Four more states Secede their forts in S.C.’s territory 8.Virginia (April 17; referendum May 23, 1861)9. Arkansas (May 6)10. Tennessee (May 7; referendum June 8)11. North Carolina 75,000 Union troops are asked to join by Lincoln Stop and Think: The North their forts in S.C.’s territory Loses Fort Sumter, as a result, They want to take Richmond Lee their forts in S.C.’s territory
  • Graduate from West Point
  • Colonel in Mexican War
  • Led West Point
  • Put down John Brown (U.S.A.)
  • Civilwar.org their forts in S.C.’s territory
  • “Because of his reputation as one of the finest officers in the United States Army, Abraham Lincoln offered Lee the command of the Federal forces in April 1861. Lee declined and tendered his resignation from the army when the state of Virginia seceded on April 17, arguing that he could not fight against his own people.  Instead, he accepted a general’s commission in the newly formed Confederate Army.”
  • Think about it…. their forts in S.C.’s territory
  • Was it a mistake for Lee to join the Confederate States? Would you turn against Indiana if it meant fighting for your country?
  • 1 their forts in S.C.’s territoryst Battle of Bull Run 25 Miles their forts in S.C.’s territory From D.C. " their forts in S.C.’s territoryYou are green, it is true, but they are green also; you are all green alike." Irwin McDowell -Lincoln July 21, 1861 Stonewall Jackson their forts in S.C.’s territory Confederate Soldier under Robert E. Lee Brigadier general Held his ground One of the casualties of the artillery fire was Judith Carter Henry, an 85-year-old widow and invalid, who was unable to leave her bedroom in the Henry House. As Ricketts began receiving rifle fire, he concluded that it was coming from the Henry House and turned his guns on the building. A shell that crashed through the bedroom wall tore off one of the widow's feet and inflicted multiple injuries, from which she died later that day This was the first major land battle of the armies in Virginia. On July 16, 1861, the untried Union army under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell marched from Washington against the Confederate army, which was drawn up behind Bull Run beyond Centreville. On the 21st, McDowell crossed at Sudley Ford and attacked the Confederate left flank on Matthews Hill. Fighting raged throughout the day as Confederate forces were driven back to Henry Hill. Late in the afternoon, Confederate reinforcements extended and broke the Union right flank. The Federal retreat rapidly deteriorated into a rout. Thomas J. Jackson earned the nom de guerre “Stonewall.” By July 22, the shattered Union army reached the safety of Washington. Who Virginia. On July 16, 1861, the untried Union army under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell marched from Washington against the Confederate army, which was drawn up behind Bull Run beyond Centreville. On the 21st, McDowell crossed at won? Border Virginia. On July 16, 1861, the untried Union army under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell marched from Washington against the Confederate army, which was drawn up behind Bull Run beyond Centreville. On the 21st, McDowell crossed at States Casualties Virginia. On July 16, 1861, the untried Union army under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell marched from Washington against the Confederate army, which was drawn up behind Bull Run beyond Centreville. On the 21st, McDowell crossed at I Virginia. On July 16, 1861, the untried Union army under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell marched from Washington against the Confederate army, which was drawn up behind Bull Run beyond Centreville. On the 21st, McDowell crossed at ronclads Martial Law Virginia. On July 16, 1861, the untried Union army under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell marched from Washington against the Confederate army, which was drawn up behind Bull Run beyond Centreville. On the 21st, McDowell crossed at Blockade Virginia. On July 16, 1861, the untried Union army under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell marched from Washington against the Confederate army, which was drawn up behind Bull Run beyond Centreville. On the 21st, McDowell crossed at Battle of Shiloh Virginia. On July 16, 1861, the untried Union army under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell marched from Washington against the Confederate army, which was drawn up behind Bull Run beyond Centreville. On the 21st, McDowell crossed at April 6 - 7, 1862 Forces Engaged= 110,053 Hornet’s Nest Union- 65,085 Confederate- 44,968 Grant’s big victory in the West Casualties- 23,746 2 Virginia. On July 16, 1861, the untried Union army under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell marched from Washington against the Confederate army, which was drawn up behind Bull Run beyond Centreville. On the 21st, McDowell crossed at nd Battle of Bull Run The Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) proved to be the deciding battle in the Civil War campaign waged between Union and Confederate armies in northern Virginia in 1862. As a large Union force commanded by John Pope waited for George McClellan's Army of the Potomac in anticipation of a combined offensive, Confederate General Robert E. Lee decided to strike first. Lee sent half of his Army of Northern Virginia to hit the Federal supply base at Manassas. Led by Stonewall Jackson, hero of the First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) 13 months earlier, the rebels seized supplies and burned the depot, then established hidden positions in the woods. On August 29, Pope's Federals clashed with Jackson's men, who held their ground with heavy losses on both sides. The following day, after the rest of Lee's army arrived, 28,000 rebels led by James Longstreet launched a counterattack, forcing Pope to withdraw his battered army toward Washington that night. Battle of Antietam 28,000 rebels led by James Longstreet launched a counterattack, forcing Pope to withdraw his battered army toward Washington that night. Bloodiest Single Day in America’s History The 27th Indiana Volunteers 28,000 rebels led by James Longstreet launched a counterattack, forcing Pope to withdraw his battered army toward Washington that night. On the morning on September 13, 1862, Corporal Barton Mitchell of the 27th Indiana discovered Robert E. Lee’s Special Order 191 wrapped with three cigars in a field on the Best Farm, not far from Frederick, Maryland.  This discovery of Lee’s Maryland Campaign plans would energize the Army of Potomac's pursuit of Lee’s divided forces in Maryland.  At the Battle of Antietam, the 27th Indiana, part of the Union XII Corps, suffered tremendous casualties as it advanced through the Miller Cornfield.  By the end of the Maryland Campaign the 27th Indiana had lost almost 50% of its soldiers. "Once let the black man get upon his person the brass letter, U.S., let him get an eagle on his button, and a musket on his shoulder and bullets in his pocket, there is no power on earth that can deny that he has earned the right to citizenship." Frederick Douglass In early June 1864, Private Sylvester Ray of the 2d U.S. Colored Cavalry was recommended for trial because he refused to accept pay inferior to that of white soldiers. First Lieutenant Edwin Hughes of the 2d U.S. Colored Cavalry, recorded Private Ray as stating, ". . . none of us will sign again for seven dollars a month. . . ." When Johnny comes marching home again, Hurrah! Hurrah! Colored Cavalry was recommended for trial because he refused to accept pay inferior to that of white soldiers. We'll give him a hearty welcome then, Hurrah! Hurrah! The men will cheer, the boys will shout, The ladies they will all turn out, And we'll all feel gay When Johnny comes marching home. The old church bells will peal with joy, Hurrah! Hurrah! Colored Cavalry was recommended for trial because he refused to accept pay inferior to that of white soldiers. To welcome home our darling boy, Hurrah! Hurrah! The village lads and lassies say With roses they will strew the way, And we'll all feel gay When Johnny comes marching home. Get ready for the Jubilee, Hurrah! Hurrah! Colored Cavalry was recommended for trial because he refused to accept pay inferior to that of white soldiers. We'll give the hero three times three, Hurrah! Hurrah! The laurel wreath is ready now To place upon his loyal brow, And we'll all feel gay When Johnny comes marching home. Let love and friendship on that day, Hurrah! Hurrah! Colored Cavalry was recommended for trial because he refused to accept pay inferior to that of white soldiers. Their choicest treasures then display, Hurrah! Hurrah! And let each one perform some part To fill with joy the warrior's heart, And we'll all feel gay When Johnny comes marching home. Sittin Colored Cavalry was recommended for trial because he refused to accept pay inferior to that of white soldiers.' by the roadside on a summer's day, Chattin' with my messmates, passing time away, Lying in the shadows, underneath the trees – Goodness, how delicious, eating goober peas! CHORUS:Peas! Peas! Peas! Peas! Eating goober peas! Goodness, how delicious, eating goober peas! When a horseman passes, the soldiers have a rule Colored Cavalry was recommended for trial because he refused to accept pay inferior to that of white soldiers. To cry out at their loudest "Mister, here's your mule!“ But still another pleasure enchantinger than these Is wearing out your grinders, eating goober peas! CHORUS Just before the battle, the General hears a row; He says "The Yanks are coming, I hear their rifles now"! He turns around in wonder, and what do you think he sees? The Georgia Militia, eating goober peas! CHORUS Colored Cavalry was recommended for trial because he refused to accept pay inferior to that of white soldiers. I think my song had lasted almost long enough! The subject's interesting, but rhymes are mighty rough! I wish this war was over, when free from rags and fleas, We'd kiss our wives and sweethearts and goble goober peas! CHORUS Come all ye valiant soldiers -- a story I will tell About the bloody battle that was fought on Shiloh Hill. It was an awful struggle and will cause your blood to chill; It was the famous battle that was fought on Shiloh Hill. 'Twas on the sixth of April, just at the break of day; The drums and fifes were playing for us to march away. The feeling of that hour I do remember still, When first my feet were tromping on the top of Shiloh Hill. About the hour of sunrise the battle it began; Before the day was ended, we fought 'em hand to hand. The horrors of that field did my heart with anguish fill For the wounded and the dying that lay on Shiloh Hill. There were men from every nation laid on those bloody plains, Fathers, sons, and brothers were numbered with the slain, That has caused so many homes with deep mourning to be filled, All from the bloody battle that was fought on Shiloh Hill. The wounded men were crying for help from everywhere, While others who were dying were offering God their prayer, "Protect my wife and children if it is Thy holy will!" Such were the prayers I heard that night on Shiloh Hill. And early the next morning we were called to arms again, Unmindful of the wounded and unuseful to the slain; The struggle was renewed again, and ten thousand men were killed; This was the second conflict of the famous Shiloh Hill. The battle it raged on, though dead and dying men Lay thick all o'er the ground, on the hill and on the glen; And from their deadly wounds, the blood ran like a rill; Such were the mournful sights that I saw on Shiloh Hill. Before the day was ended, the battle ceased to roar, And thousands of brave soldiers had fell to rise no more; They left their vacant ranks for some other ones to fill, And now their mouldering bodies all lie on Shiloh Hill. And now my song is ended about those bloody plains; I hope the sight by mortal man may ne'er be seen again! But I pray to God, the Saviour, "If consistent with Thy will, To save the souls of all who fell on bloody Shiloh Hill." Clara Barton the sight by mortal man may ne'er be seen again! But I pray to God, the Union Women Founder of the Red Cross Miss Barton got down to work. As bullets whizzed overhead and artillery boomed in the distance, Miss Barton cradled the heads of suffering soldiers, prepared food for them in a local farm house, and brought water to the wounded men. As she knelt down to give one man a drink, she felt her sleeve quiver. She looked down, noticed a bullet hole in her sleeve, and then discovered that the bullet had killed the man she was helping. "I may sometimes be willing to teach for nothing, but if paid at all, I shall never do a man's work for less than a man's pay." -Clara Barton VIENNA, Va. paid at all, I shall never do a man's work for less than a man's pay." — Feb.  22, 2010 — If the women of the North were best characterized by a famous nurse, the women of the South were exemplified best by a renowned spy, Rose O’Neal Greenhow, the lady who set the paradigm for covert operatives. Rose was born into a well-to-do family in Montgomery County, MD in 1817, and from teenage years on was known as “Wild Rose,” an apt nickname. She was an ardent secessionist from the beginning, and when orphaned at a young age, went to live with her aunt in Washington, DC, in the Congressional Boarding House, on the site where later would be the notorious Old Capitol Prison. She would also reside there. Being in Washington with her aunt gave her access to all of the best families, political and otherwise, as well as military figures that would prove of substantial benefit to her later on.  One of her best known results, was to surreptitiously deliver to General Pierre G. T. Beauregard the anticipated Union troop movements, which led to the Confederate victory at the Battle of First Manassas (or Bull Run.)  This success led President Jefferson Davis to give her the credit for the victory. She was carefully watched by Allan Pinkerton, a Secret Service agent of the era, arrested in August of 1862 and placed in Old Capitol Prison, along with her eight year old daughter, Rose.  Even while in prison she sent notes to assist the Confederacy, one going out in the hair bun of a lady visitor.  She was ultimately released from prison and deported to Richmond, VA After Davis sent her to Europe to tour England and France while spreading propaganda favorable to the South, she published her memoirs, and was delighted to find great sympathy among the ruling classes of both countries. After a year, she boarded the Condor, a British blockade-runner, to return home. When the ship ran aground on a sand bar and with a Union boat in pursuit, she persuaded the ship captain to put her and two others into a rowboat so they could escape. Unfortunately the small craft was swamped by waves, and Rose who was carrying $2,000.00 for the Confederate Treasury sewn into her skirt, drowned. She was buried in Wilmington, NC with full Confederate Military Honors and her marble cross marker carries the words, “Mrs. Rose O’N. Greenhow, a Bearer of Dispatchs [sic] to the Confederate Government. Andersonville while spreading propaganda favorable to the South, she published her memoirs, and was delighted to find great sympathy among the ruling classes of both countries. After a year, she boarded the 1. Bell Isle—Richmond, Virginia while spreading propaganda favorable to the South, she published her memoirs, and was delighted to find great sympathy among the ruling classes of both countries. After a year, she boarded the2. Cahaba Prison—Cahaba, Alabama3. Camp Chase—Columbus, Ohio4. Camp Douglas—Chicago, Illinois5. Camp Florence—Florence, South Carolina6. Camp Lawton—Millen, Georgia7. Camp Morton—Indianapolis, Indiana8. Camp Sumter—Andersonville, Georgia9. Castle Pickney—Charleston, S.C.10. Elmira Prison—Elmira, New York11. Johnson's Island—Sandusky, Ohio12. Libby Prison—Richmond, Virginia13. Old Capitol Prison—Washington, D.C.14. Point Lookout—Point Lookout, MD15. Rock Island—Rock Island, Illinois16. Salisbury—Salisbury, North Carolina Step 1: while spreading propaganda favorable to the South, she published her memoirs, and was delighted to find great sympathy among the ruling classes of both countries. After a year, she boarded the Examine the photograph for 10 seconds. How would you describe the photograph? Step 2:Divide the photograph into quadrants and study each section individually. What details--such as people, objects, activities--do you notice? Step 3:What other information--such as time period, location, season, reason photo was taken--can you gather from the photo? Step 4:How would you revise your first description of the photo using the information noted in Steps 2 and 3? Step 5:What questions do you have about the photograph? How might you find answers to these questions? Map 1: Civil War battles fought in Maryland and Virginia prior to the Battle of Gettysburg. 1. Why did most major land battles in the eastern theater of the Civil War surround the Washington, D.C.--Richmond, Virginia area? Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. Describe the photo this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. Where do you think this is? Date? Title? What caused this? Sherman’s March to the Sea this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. -Total War -Burn crops, Kill Livestock, Take Homes Atlanta-Savannah No communication or Supply Line -Live off the land ... IV. The army will forage liberally on the country during the march. To this end, each brigade commander will organize a good and sufficient foraging party, under the command of one or more discreet officers, who will gather, near the route traveled, corn or forage of any kind, meat of any kind, vegetables, corn-meal, or whatever is needed by the command, aiming at all times to keep in the wagons at least ten day's provisions for the command and three days' forage. Soldiers must not enter the dwellings of the inhabitants, or commit any trespass, but during a halt or a camp they may be permitted to gather turnips, apples, and other
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