Globalization: Manifestations of the Physical basis of Globalization The Issue The Problem(s)

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Globalization: Manifestations of the Physical basis of Globalization The Issue The Problem(s) Pathways to a solution. To Larry the scientist – the citizen. C . N . Papanicolas Jefferson Lab Talk cnp@ cyi.ac.cy. Globalization.
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Globalization:Manifestations of the Physical basis of Globalization
  • The Issue
  • The Problem(s)
  • Pathways to a solution
  • To Larry the scientist – the citizen C.N. PapanicolasJefferson Lab Talkcnp@cyi.ac.cyGlobalization
  • “Globalization” has entered our ideological and political interpretational framework strongly and decisively.
  • In its name policies and practices are established or justified, which affect significant aspects of our lives.
  • It has supporters and adversaries!
  • But what is Globalization?
  • A political-economical system, therefore a matter of choice (or imposition)? A social phenomenon or one with a natural background?
  • A new phenomenon?Or the reoccurrence of an older one in a new more intensive form? Is it reversible?
  • Understanding the above is necessary for the management of modern societies.Concerning Globalization
  • The termGlobalizationmade its appearance in the 80s and has been used widely ever since.
  • There is no commonly accepted definition. It is defined through the literature that examines the phenomenon.
  • The Lexus and the Olive Tree, understanding GlobalizationT.L. Friedman (2000)
  • The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World OrderSamuel P. Huntington (1996)
  • The End of History and the Last ManFrancis Fukuyama (1993)
  • Authors: political scientists, historians, journalistsGlobalization:According to Thomas L. Friedman:
  • Globalization is:“Globalization is not simply a trend or a fad but is, rather, an international system. It is the system that has now replaced the old cold war system…”
  • It is not the first, but the second one. The first was in the period preceding World War I. “The period of globalization preceding WWI was quite similar to the one we are living today.”
  • Occurrence:In 1990. Tearing down of the Berlin Wall and the end of the cold war.
  • Globalization:According to Thomas L. Friedman:
  • First period of Globalization: (~1860 -1914)
  • Dominated by British pound, navy & culture
  • Build around falling transportation costs
  • Key technologies: railroad, steamship and the automobile
  • Second period of Globalization: (1990 - )
  • Dominated by American dollar, military power & culture
  • Build around falling telecommunication costs
  • Key technologies: microchips, satellites, fiber optics,internet
  • Differences: In intensity and extend
  • “The first era of globalization shrank the world from a size “large” to a size “medium”, this era of globalization is shrinking the world from a size “medium” to a size “small”.Globalization:According to Francis Fukuyama: Globalization is a global political-economical system of a global society of liberal republics (capitalistic economies),with mutual respect and co-dependenceIn Fukuyama’s neo-liberal and neo-Hegelian analysis he points to the following:
  • This system constitutes “The End of History” meaning that there will not follow more advanced systems.
  • History has or had “directiοnality”, with natural sciences playing a regulatory role.
  • He argues: We entered this last stage of history with the collapse of the “existing socialism“ systems (1990)Globalization:According to Samuel Huntington: He does not examine “Globalization” per se. He examines the political-economical system that was established after the end of the cold war and argues that the main confrontation that will take place on a global scale is that of “Clashes of Civilizations“His theory became quite popular after September 11th .From his impressive analysis, the following arise:
  • He dismisses the notion of“End of History” (Fukuyama).
  • We are in an unprecedented historical phase, both multi-cultural and multi-polar.
  • This clash of civilizations will dominate in the new century, but other systems will follow
  • Globalization:According to the “Left” view (Noam Chomsky, M. Hardt & A. Negri “Empire”...,etc)In general agrees with the characteristics of other treatments. In addition it argues:
  • Correlated with the economical and cultural domination of the American Imperialism.
  • There exist alternative and better management solutions of the world.
  • It occurred in 1990 with the end of the cold war
  • Concerning Globalization (ΙΙ):According to the most widely accepted view:Globalization is:
  • The dominating status quo after the Cold War.
  • Main characteristics:
  • Political and Economical plexus covering and affecting the whole planet
  • Worldwide movement of goods, people, and information (in a capitalistic economy)
  • Science and Technology have lead us to this point
  • Occurrence:
  • In 1990! The tearing down of the Berlin Wall and in general the end of the Cold War.
  • Concerning Globalization (ΙIΙ):Questions and problems:The criteria being used are unsatisfactory, do not answer the following:
  • How many Globalizations have occurred (Hellenistic, Roman, British, American...)?
  • Why the one we are experience is the last?
  • Occurence:
  • It can not be associated with the end of the Cold War, unless Globalization is a synonym of American hegemony.
  • Main Characteristics:
  • The worldwide transfer or information, goods and people is certainly important. It has been taking place since ancient times. However a threshold needs to be identified.
  • KEY ISSUE: Identification of “thresholds”, “phase transitions”, “critical points”Concerning Globalization (ΙV):CLAIM: Globalization is a new qualitative phase for human existence on this planet, characterised by objective physical attributes. It is important to seek characteristics of this“Phase Change”and “Thresholds”marking the transition to this change.
  • Which is the previous and which is the next phase?
  • In which quantities (Physical, Financial, Social) can we observe it; At which values (does the phase transition occur)?
  • Remark:
  • The worldwide transfer of information, goods and people is certainly important. It has been taking place since ancient times. However a Threshold needs to be identified.
  • Globalization:Scales and Characteristic Quantities
  • Distance
  • Communication
  • Energy
  • We need to find in these quantities, thresholdsthat signify the transition to Globalization Concerning Earth and Human Societies Physical parameters of the planet: How many people and with which kind of activity could this planet sustain?This question could serve as Ariadne's thread in our quest to find the characteristics of the “Phase Change” we seek.Planet Earth
  • Diameter: 12740 km
  • Land Surface: 148 000 000 km2
  • Solar Power intake: 89 PW
  • Population: 6,9 Billion
  • 1. DISTANCEHuman TravelTravel Horizon:
  • Distance of functional human travel. The distance that an average person can travel with the technological and financial means available to him.
  •  Chronically and Technologically defined Travel Horizon limit:Half of Earth’s Perimeter: ~20 000 kmHuman TravelTravel Horizon:The distance that an average person can travel with the available technological and financial means.Working AssumptionAssume a 24 hour travel. Assume a financial limit equal to a week’s salaryExamples
  • On foot – On horseback: 100 km
  • Automobile or Train: 2 000 km
  • Airplane: 25 000 km
  • Jet Engine10 hours20 hours15 hours24 hoursHuman TravelAir Transport limit (from Chicago, USA)Human TravelThe financial limit for TransportTravel Cost fromNew York to London (return)1. DistanceThe Threshold for Human Travel which signifies a transition to Globalization, was crossed by mankind, very recently, in the 1990s.2. CommunicationCommunicationInformation TransferHorizon for Information Transmission:
  • The distance that a substantial amount of information can be transmitted with the given technological and financial means.
  • Working AssumptionAssume a 24 hour transmission period. Assume a cost limit equal to a day’s salary Amount of information:50 Books ≈ an Encyclopedia (~ 10Gbit)Technological limits
  • On footor on Horseback: 100 km
  • Automobile or Train: 2 000 km
  • Airplane: 25 000 km
  • Electronically:∞
  • CommunicationCommunication CostsCommunicationTechnology and Communications Cost CommunicationCost of Transmitting InformationEconomic Barrier3. Energy & Power
  • Energy Consumption
  • Destructive Power
  • Energy & PowerEnergy Consumption Threshold Extremely Difficult Problem
  • Non-linearities
  • Related to the method of Energy production with social and technological restrictions
  • Greenhouse effect
  • Nuclear waste
  • The Scale is set by Solar Energy intake and the tolerance of the ecosystem to tolerate deviations from it.Energy & PowerIncoming Solar Radiation Energy & PowerThe Greenhouse EffectEnergy & PowerGlobal Energy Balance
  • Incoming Solar Power~ 0.175 x 109 Gw = 175 Pw
  • About 1% (1500 Tw) powers wind activity
  • Incoming Solar Power reaching Earth’s surface (ISP) ~ 168 W/m2
  • Global Energy Consumption (2004) ~1.5 x 104 Gw ( = 10-4 Solar Power! )
  • Energy & PowerEnergy Consumption Threshold Extremely Difficult Problem
  • Non-linearities
  • Related to the method of Energy production with social and technological restrictions
  • Greenhouse effect
  • Nuclear waste
  • First rough approximation:Assume that it cannot exceed a fraction of the available wind power. Let us assume 10%.
  • Global Power Limit1.5 x 105 GW= 150 TW
  • Local Power Density limit 85 W/ m2 (=0.5 ISP)
  • HurricanesEst. Energy: 66,5 PwhPower:3 - 300 TWHurricane Katrina (August 2005)Energy & PowerPower Consumption Threshold First rough approximation:Assume that it cannot exceed a fraction of the available wind power. Let us assume 10%.
  • Global Power Limit:1.5 x 105 GW= 150 TW
  • Local Power Density limit: 85 W/ m2 (=0.5 ISP)
  • Energy & PowerEnergy Consumption as a fraction of the Incoming Solar EnergyLocal LimitEnergy & PowerNYC: Power Consumption3b. Desrtuctive powerHiroshimaHiroshima Bomb = 0.018 Mt(Castle Romeo = 15Mt)We have crossed the threshold of complete annihilation of our planetEnergy & PowerDestructive Power/ Energy
  • 2nd WW:2 750 Gwh (= 2.15Mt TNT)
  • Vietnam:11 200 Gwh (= 8.75 Mt TNT)
  • Hiroshima Bomb = 0.018 Mt
  • Castle Romeo (US) = 15Mt
  • TzarBomba (USSR) = 60 Mt = 37 x106GWh= 37 PWh
  • We have crossed this threshold!Thresholds1. DistanceThe threshold of Human Travel signifying a transition to Globalization, was crossed by mankind quite recently in the 1990s.2. CommunicationThe threshold of Communication (information transmission) signifying a transition to Globalization, was crossed by mankind recently, in the 1980s.
  • 3. Energy Consumption
  • The threshold of Energy Consumption signifying a transition to Globalization, was crossed by mankind in the 1970s.
  • Management of Globalised Societies The first bad examples
  • Environmental Management, Greenhouse Effect
  • Management of Destructive Power
  • Climate Change: Global WarmingAtmospheric LimitWe have reached the limit of global tolerance for the change in our atmosphere’s composition.a Phase Change?
  • It is clear that for the first time in human history we have reached a point when we have changed the climate of our planet
  • We must however point out that the Greenhouse effect does not offer a limit in Energy Consumption. Only in the production of certain gases and as a result the production of energy through specific processes (for example fossil fuel)
  • Issues to be addressed:
  • Better understanding of the problem(research…)
  • Confront the problem (mitigation, adaptation)
  • Electricity ConsumptionEcological Footprint
  • The Ecological Footprint is a resource management tool that measures how much land and water area a human population requires to produce the resources it consumes and to absorb its wastes under prevailing technology.
  • Today, humanity's Ecological Footprint is over 23% larger than what the planet can regenerate. In other words, it now takes more than one year and two months for the Earth to regenerate what we use in a single year.
  • Ecological FootprintEcological FootprintFinal Remarks Final RemarksFor the first time in human history we have the ability to:
  • Destroy or radically change the ecosystem we inhabit
  • With chosen destructive processes (nuclear or biological warfare)
  • Involuntary, e.g. Climate changes due to CO2 emissions
  • We have unquestionably exceeded the planetary scale in many parameters (e.g. communication and information transfer, power densities )
  • TrinityTIME: July 16 1945, 5:29:45 A.M. (Mountain War Time)PLACE: Trinity Site Zero, Alamogordo Test Range,Jornada del Muerto desert, New Mexico USAFinal Remarks
  • As citizens of this planet, as scientists what can we do?
  • Living in a Globalized Earth
  • Education, Science and Society
  • Louis Hubert Lyautey
  • When his gardener objected when asked to plant a tree which would bare fruit after a hundred years, he said:
  • “We don’t have a moment to loose. You must plant it today! ”Thank You!Helen & Larry, Thank You! My best wishes for the next challenge.Effects of Global WarmingEcological Footprintby HDI, nation and populationArea that meets minimum criteria for sustainability Climate Change: Rising Sea levels
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