Hygienic Milk Handling and Processing

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hygienic milk handling
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  HYGIENIC MILK HANDLING AND PROCESSING  HYGIENIC MILK HANDLING AND PROCESSING i.   Introduction    What we expect in the module ii.   Objective of the module is : 1)   To enable production of clean milk which is safe for human consumption 2)   To ensure that milk is collected, transported and delivered under hygienic conditions that meet regal requirements. 3)   Ensure hygienic milk preservation during production, transportation and processing. 4)   Ensure that the milk meets required level of quality before processing. 5)   Ensure milk undergoes recommended hygienic handling during processing. 6)   Ensure that the quality of milk is assured during production, handling and processing. 7)   Enhance better incomes through proper record keeping of hygienic practices. iii.   Production of clean milk a)   Characteristics of good quality milk. a)   Definition of milk : milk is a normal clean and fresh secretion from the udder of a healthy dairy animal properly fed and kept. Such milk excludes that which is obtained during the first seven days after calving (colostrum ) b)   Essentials of good quality raw milk    free debris and sediment    free from off-flavors    low in bacterial count    normal composition and acidity    free of antibiotics and chemical residues    Whitish cream to yellowish in color. b)   Production of good quality milk at the farm.  i.   NB - a healthy properly fed and kept animal will always secrete clean and high quality milk. Thus any variation in milk quality is mainly due to consequent contamination. ii.   Sources of Milk Contamination i.   The dairy animal    Udder and udder flanks    Unhealthy animal    Poorly housed and groomed    Poorly fed ii.   Personnel (Milker/milk handler)    Poor health    Poor knowledge on milking and handling    Personal hygiene      Negligence of hygienic practices.  iii.   Milking environment    Dirty and smelly environment    Poorly lit and ventilated    Dusty and moist      Poorly drained  iv.   Milking equipment    Poorly cleaned    Poorly designed and maintained    Poor knowledge in handling milking equipment v.   Vessels used for milk storage and transportation    Poorly designed and maintained    Poorly cleaned    Improper construction material iii.   Conditions for Clean Milk Production In order to produce clean milk the points below are worth observing: 1.   Milking should be carried out in a well-ventilated and lighted milk shed 2.   The milk shed floor should be durable, easy to clean and preferably concrete. 3.   Clean and disinfect milking vessels and milking utensils after.   4.   Milking and milk handlers must be healthy. 5.   Only milk from healthy cows should be milked and marketed. Cows suffering from mastitis should be milked last and their milk discarded. 6.   Colostrum should not be mixed with normal milk. It should be used by calves. 7.   Mastitic milk should be checked using a strip cup then discarded. 8.   Where possible raw milk should be cooled using simple methods. iv.   Milk handling personnel. Milk handling personnel must be: i.   Healthy    No sore throats or upset stomachs    skin infections    colds or fever    not infected with contagious diseases ii.   use clean clothes/garments iii.   Hand washing practice Wash hands and forearms by:    pre-rinsing to remove dirt    wash using soap and water    brush under the nails    rinse the hands dry  NB: routinely practice after visiting the toilet. v.   Milking Procedure a)   Hand milking    Assemble the milking utensils.    Restrain the animal.    Clean the udder, thigh, groin, teats and abdomen.
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