Investigate the Natural Light in Architectural

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  The Turkish Online Journal of Design, Art and Communication - TOJDAC November 2016 Special Edition Submit Date: 12.09.2016, Acceptance Date: 05.10.2016, DOI NO: 10.7456/1060NVSE/151Copyright © The Turkish Online Journal of Design, Art and Communication 3326 INVESTIGATE THE NATURAL LIGHT IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNING BY REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION' APPROACH Mina JavadniaM.A at Architectural Engineering,Gheshm International UniversityLecturer at Shushtar Islamic Azad University  ABSTRACT The use of daylight in architecture not only meets mental and physical needs of human, but also reduces the fossil energy consumption. From this perspective, Iran’s rich architecture has valuable achievements and experience that requires recognition and introduction to the architecture community of Iran and the world .  Although Iran is among the richest country in terms of energy resources, improper use and waste of them imposes irreparable damage to the country's annual budget as far as the construction sector, by using over 40 % of the total energy produced in the country and 30 % of the proceeds from sale of oil, has the highest level of energy consumption. Since electricity has the greatest share of energy consumption in  buildings, providing new ways to reduce energy consumption is necessary. In the meantime, the use of natural light in spaces plays an effective role in energy efficiency and prevention from electricity dissipation, because usual solutions in the present era, i.e. the use of electric lighting systems, cause heating the space and physical damage (eye) in addition to their high cost. In this paper, we account the  benefits of using natural light in buildings, and then explain how to use natural light in architecture. At the end, we will present and describe new ways to use this natural resource. Keywords:    Architecture, natural light, reduce energy consumption. INTRODUCTION Iran, with more than seven thousand years’ history of urbanization and highly diverse geographical and topography status, is one of the treasures in the world’s architectural history. Climate diversity on the one hand and a long history of settlement, on the other hand, caused this territory to have interesting and valuable achievements in the field of Architecture and Urban Development; including the daylighting  practices in buildings and urban spaces. Solar energy is one of free and clean sources of energy free from adverse environmental impacts that has been traditionally used by mankind in various methods. The energy crisis in recent years has made the world's countries to treat the issues relating to energy in a different manner. In the meantime, replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy, including solar energy, to reduce and save energy consumption, control supply and demand for energy and reduce pollutant emissions has been greatly welcomed [1]. The use of solar energy in buildings is one of the oldest applications of this type of energy, but what has drawn the most attention in this regard is the use of solar thermal energy on which there are many research and too many findings. In Iran, the direct use of sunlight for lighting has received less attention, while new and efficient methods have been invented in this regard with the progress of science and technology, and this paper is going to describe these methods. In the art of building or architecture, light is an element proposed along with other elements and concepts such as spatial order structure, materials, color and etc. and has to play its role in design as a separate element. But the fact is that in many interior architecture and construction cases, light is seen mainly as a lighting factor that would reduce artificial light consumption and thereby reduce the power consumption. However, natural light should be involved in lighting a building considering the prevention from attracting undesirable heat. THE NECESSITY OF RESEARCH  The Turkish Online Journal of Design, Art and Communication - TOJDAC November 2016 Special Edition Submit Date: 12.09.2016, Acceptance Date: 05.10.2016, DOI NO: 10.7456/1060NVSE/151Copyright © The Turkish Online Journal of Design, Art and Communication 3327Modern architecture in Iran is completely dependent on the use of artificial light, especially in housing, education and administrative sectors where there is an urgent need to provide light. In practice, the use of natural light that is the most reasonable, cost - effective and clear type of light has been buried. With regard to the existing problems in the area of fossil energy supply as well as environmental problems caused by indiscriminate use of this type of energy, it is essential to reconsider the traditional ways of construction and the use of advanced natural lighting systems. LITERATURE REVIEW Throughout history, daylight and building design has been always of interest to architects due to  benefiting from this natural gift. Since power and lamp has invented and allowed the illumination of the interior space artificially, the use of natural daylight was often neglected. The last 100-year experience showed that the physical and psychological need of human to daylight is deeper than lighting by electric  power; so the studies related to daylight and its optimal use has drawn special attention in developed countries of the world for many years. In this regard, international communities such as the Commission of Illumination in Europe (CIE), Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), China Illuminating Engineering Society (CIES), India Lighting Society (ILSE), and other scientific research communities in Australia and Canada are responsible for doing research and production of lighting standards, both natural and artificial light. Given the expansion of scientific knowledge in the country during recent years and the interest of some students to carry out research projects in the field of natural lighting in architecture, some research has been done theoretically on the daylight calculation daylight and some field study has been conducted in connection with natural lighting conditions in office and education spaces; including the research by Tahbaz (2004), Sanaati (2006), Faizmand (2011), Kazemzadeh (2011) and etc. [2]. The establishment of Iranian Association of Lighting and Illumination Engineering was another positive measure in this regard. The necessity of using daylight in architecture, on the one hand, and software development, on the other hand, provided facilities to decrypt the causes of success or failure of lighting in various spaces. By the advent of this knowledge in Iran, in a new direction has been made to study daylight in historical places. THE BENEFITS OF USING NATURAL LIGHT IN ARCHITECTURE   The use of natural light has many benefits and advantages. Here, there are some of main advantages of this divine gift in brief: 1.   Reduction of energy consumption: less dependence on artificial lighting can reduce the use of electricity   up to 10 %. 2.   Reduction of microbial agents and fungi in buildings: most of diseases, especially chronic respiratory problems, are often related to bacterial agents and fungi formed in wet places of the  building such as cellars and bathrooms. Natural light can naturally reduce the formation of harmful organisms and sunlight is considered as one of the best disinfectants. 3.   Improved health due to vitamin D: plenty of sunlight can prevent from the lack of vitamins D and B1 that may cause diseases such as rickets and beriberi [3]. 4.   Improve efficiency due to changes in the workplace: A lot of case studies have concluded that  performance of personnel   working at the places with natural light has been significantly improved.  The Turkish Online Journal of Design, Art and Communication - TOJDAC November 2016 Special Edition Submit Date: 12.09.2016, Acceptance Date: 05.10.2016, DOI NO: 10.7456/1060NVSE/151Copyright © The Turkish Online Journal of Design, Art and Communication 33285.   Increased visual attractions in interior design: natural light is still one of the best lighting systems used in interior design, while successful combination of light with structure or building can be a challenging and satisfactory job. 6.   Daylight is one of the primary factors creating natural rhythm in biological systems due to ultraviolet rays. 7.   The use of natural light has a direct impact   on the quality and quantity of other factors of standard space; such as temperature and humidity. 8.   The use of daylight in space leads to better relationship with the nature and is effective on the eye health and also reduces anxiety of the people. THE HISTORY OF USING NATURAL LIGHT   To the best of our knowledge, sunlight was first used in the 3rd century of 4th millennium to gain light and shadow by creating differences in the levels of exterior walls. In Shahr-e-Sookhteh (Burnt City), it can be found from the houses with their wall remaining under the ceiling each room had a way out through a door and there was no window. During the period of Elam Civilization about 1300   and 1400 BC, an example of glass windows has been found with the pipes from glass paste placed together in a frame and surely used to illuminate the building. One of the most ancient documents and samples of door and window in Iranian architecture may be found in the scripts of Median Castles in Dur-Sharrukin. The holes made on towers can be also found on the Assyrian reliefs [4]. During Achaemenid era, the principle of different levels was used to attract the light. According to Professor Wolfgang, it appeared that the angles of Persepolis buildings were deviated so that the first day of the year and different seasons could be determined by creating various contrasts. This deviation of angle would allow Iranian architect to build places to live in a way that every house can use necessary amount of sunlight in different seasons of the year. Sassanian also tended to show the conflict between light and shadow, and it is evident in all their buildings. ELEMENTS CONNECTED WITH NATURAL LIGHT IN IRAN’S TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE Based on the above mentioned discussion, the elements connected with natural light in Iran’s traditional architecture can be classified as follows:  The Turkish Online Journal of Design, Art and Communication - TOJDAC November 2016 Special Edition Submit Date: 12.09.2016, Acceptance Date: 05.10.2016, DOI NO: 10.7456/1060NVSE/151Copyright © The Turkish Online Journal of Design, Art and Communication 3329   The first group adjusts the light entering the building and it is divided into two categories: those which are a part of building such as porch, and those added to building and considered decorative such as curtain. The elements proposed as lightwells have different names but they are all lightwells, including: vent, lattice, latticed door and window, Jam Khaneh, Horno, sash window, Rowshandan, Freezokhoon, Goljam, Palkaneh, Fenzer, Pajang, and Tehrani. In contrast, there are some elements, such as the porch, curtain, sunshade, awning and penthouse that control and adjust the light entering the building. In addition, some elements like Shabak (lattice), control the light in addition to attraction. In the following, we explain some of them: LIGHT CONTROLLERS Porch is a space including the roof and column that is blocked at least on one side and protects human against raining and sunlight. It also passes a gentle light inside in areas where the intensity of light and heat of the sun is high, and in this case we will have an indirect light (Fig 1). Sunshade: Sunshades are blades with 6 to 18cm in width and their height sometimes reaches to about 5 meters that have been made of plaster and reed. A skein is usually winded at the top of doors and windows that was in fact the horizontal sunshade by which the entry of sunshine to the space was controlled (Fig 2).
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