Ktitorski Model - Slika Makete Ili Crkve

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Zbornik radova Vizantolo{kog instituta HßÇç, 2007 Recueil des travaux de l’Institut d’etudes byzantines XßIV, 2007 UDC: 75.041.5(495.02) ^EDOMILA MARINKOVI] (Kragujevac) FOUNDER’S MODEL — REPRESENTATION OF A MAQUETTE OR THE CHURCH?* The text deals with some terminological problems concerning the so-called founder’s model. Although it is commonly used to designate the depicted architecture in the hand of the church founder, the expression “founder’s (ktetor’s) model” is often confusing and mis
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  UDC: 75.041.5(495.02) ^EDOMILA MARINKOVI] (Kragujevac) FOUNDER’S MODEL — REPRESENTATION OF A MAQUETTEOR THE CHURCH?* The text deals with some terminological problems concerning the so - called  founder  ’   s model  . Although it is commonly used to designate the depicted architecturein the hand of the church founder  , the expression “ founder  ’ s ( ktetor  ’ s ) model ” is oftenconfusing and misleading . The main question is whether the Byzantine architects usedactual model / maquettes for constructing their churches and if so , could these mod-els / maquettes have been used for the architecture depicted in founders ’ portraits ? Inother worlds is the representation in the donor  ’ s hand the image of a built church or itsmaquette , produced as a project model ? The different aspects of the problem we ana-lysed — the legal , technical and symbolic functions of these representations support our assumption that the architectural design model / maquette did not serve as a specimenfor representations of architecture on founder  ’ s portraits . This specific type of architec-ture depicted was created after the building itself was completed . Among the vast , wide - ranging repertoire of architectural imagery in Byzantineart , the representation of a church building as depicted in the founder  ’ s portrait occu- pies an exceptional place , not only in monumental painting , but also in mosaics , re-liefs , and illuminations . The only exceptions , according to Nancy [ev~enko , are theicons where such representations generally have not been documented . 1  Numerousrepresentations of founders ’ models have been found in the territories of the Zbornik radova Vizantolo{kog instituta HßÇç, 2007 Recueil des travaux de l’Institut d’ e tudes byzantines XßIV, 2007 * This paper is based on my master  ' s thesis about various aspects of depicted founder  ‘ s architec-ture , done at the Art History Department of the Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade , under the direction of Prof  . Marica [uput in the spring of  2005. Besides my advisor  ’ s support , I benefited a great deal from theinsightful reading and suggestions by Academician Zaga Gavrilovi} , Prof  . Marian Malet , JelenaBogdanovi} and Prof  . Richard Marx . I would like to express my gratitude to all of them . 1 Nancy Patterson - [ev~enko , The Representation of Donors and Holy Figures on four ByzantineIcons , Delt . Crist . ’ Arc .‘ Et . IZ’ (1993–94) 157. The only exception regarding the above stated opinionis the two - sided icon representing the Trapezuntine emperor  , Alexios III Komnenos , and Saint John theForerunner  , holding the very schematic representation of a domed church , today in the Holy Monasteryof Dionysiou , Mount Athos , Greece . This icon is from 1349–90. Cf  . Byzantium , Faith and Power  (1261–1557) ed . H  . C  . Evans , N . York  2004, 9, fig . 1.7.  Byzantine Empire but most of them , rather  , come from the countries under its cul-tural influence , such as Armenia , Bulgaria , Georgia , Sicily , Russia and Serbia . 2 The representations of churches in founders ’ portraits from Serbian medievalmonuments form the core of our research . Therefore , the visual material from fortySerbian churches is presented in a monographic way in order to provide a completeand chronological repertoire of these representations . Furthermore , over sixty imagesfrom Byzantine monuments are used as comparative material , and this enabled us togain a more comprehensive idea of the material in medieval Orthodox Christian artas a whole . 3 Our first step was to define the problem of the representation of a church build-ing and to establish precise and clear terminology , since the commonly used expres-sion “ founder  ’ s ( ktetor  ’ s ) model ” is often confusing and misleading . Compared with other representations of architecture , the church buildings de- picted in founders ’ portraits belong to what Anka Stojakovi} has defined as “ essen-tial images ” 4 of the illustrated architecture and have , as well as the accompanying 146 ^edomila Marinkovi} 2 Armenia : the Holy Cross Church in Aght ’ amar  (915–921). Bulgaria : St . Michael ' s Church in Ivanovo (1218–1241), the Church of SS . Nicolas andPanteleimon in Bo  i ana (1259), the Church of the Holy Virgin in Donja Kamenica ( XIV century ), St .  Nicola ’ s Church in Stani~enje (1331–1332), St . Nicola ’ s Church in Kalotina (1331–1334), the OssuaryChapel in Ba~kovo (1331–1371), and St . Marina ’ s Church in Karlukovo ( mid . XIV century ). Georgia : the Church of St . Sion in Ateni ( first half of the VII century ); K  ’ orgo ( VIII century ); St . John the Baptist in Op ’ iza (923–937); Dolisquana (937–954); St . John the Baptist in Oskhi (963–973); St . Nishan in Haghpad (967–991); the Church of the Holy Virgin in Tzarostavi ( end of the X century ); the Chapel of the Catholicon in Udabno ( mid . XI century ); the Church of the Nativity of the Holy Virginin Gelati (1106–1125); the Church of the Holy Virgin in Betania ( mid . XII century ); the Dormition of theTheotokos in Vardzia (1184–1186); St . Nicola ’ s Church in Qincvisi ( around 1207); Sicily : Monreale , Cathedral (1171–1183). Russia : Kiev : St . Sophia (1045); the Church of the Holy Saviour in Neredica (1245); the Churchof the Assumption of the Holy Virgin in Volotovo (1352). Serbia : the Church of the Ascension in Mile{eva (1219–1228), the southern chapel of the exonarthexin the Theotokos Evergetis Church in Studenica ( around 1235), the Church of the Holy Trinity in Sopo}ani (1270–1276), the Church of the Annunciation in Gradac ( around 1275), King ’ s Dragutin Chapel in DjurdjeviStupovi (1282–1283), the Church of St . Achilleos in Arilje (1295–1296), the Church of SS . Joachim andAnna in Studenica (1314), St . George ' s Church in Staro Nagori~ino (1316–1318), the Church of the Annunci-ation in Gra~anica ( around 1320), St . Peter  ’ s Church in Bijelo Polje ( around 1320), St . Nicola ’ s Church inStani~enje , the Holy Virgin Hodegetria Church in the Patriarchate of Pe} (  before 1337), St . George ' s Churchin Gornji Kozjak  ( around 1340), the Church of the Annunciation in Karan (1340–1342), the Church of theAnnunciation in Dobrun (1343), the Church of the Holy Saviour in De~ani (1343), St . George ' s Church inPolo{ko (1343–1345), the Church of the Holy Archangel Michael in Lesnovo (1346–1347), the Chapel in theChurch of the Holy Virgin in Treskavac (1350–1360), the Church of the Assumption of the Holy Virgin inMatei~ (1355–1360), St . Nicola ’ s Church in Psa~a (1365–1371), the Church of the Ascension in Ravanica ( after  1389), St . Nicola ’ s Church in Rama}a ( around 1395), the Church of St . Elias in Rudenica (1402–1405), the Church of the Holy Trinity in Manasija (  before 1418), the Theotokos Evergetis Church in Studenica ( re- painted in 1568), St . George ’ s Church in Vra}ev{nica ( repainted in 1737). Some other examples of depictedfounder  ’ s architecture have dissappeared and are known only from written sources . 3 ^  . Marinkovi} , Image of a completed church : The representation of architecture in founder  ’ s portraits in Serbian and Byzantine Art , Belgrade ( forthcoming ). Hereafter  : Marinkovi} , Image . 4 A . Stojakovi} uses this term as opposed to “ framing images ” or Tania Velman ’ s term “ d e cor architectural ”. A. Stojakovi} , Arhitektonski prostor u slikarstvu sredwovekovne Srbije, N. Sad,  inscriptions , a fundamental role in establishing the iconographic motif of the churchfounder  . The ability of the observer to recognise the actual building emphasises one of the basic functions of these motifs . These representations show a certain level of stylisa-tion . But , a church building as depicted in a founder  ’ s portrait preserves the basic fea-tures of its srcinal ( such as domes and , where they exist , towers , as well as many spe-cific details ), enabling one to recognise the entire structure and connect the image withthe completed architecture . Similarly , the inclusion of the founder  , by means of his por-trait , as a historical character in the painted assembly of the timeless heavenly dwellers , the representation of a church in his hands , indicates the introduction of architectural re-ality in the broader repertoire of mainly symbolic architectural backdrops . The representation of the church building in founders ’ portraits , as part of theiconographic motif of the founder  , is usually called a founders ’  model  or  model of thechurch . This expression is widely used in both Serbian and Byzantine literature . 5 Our question is whether these terms are the appropriate ones ? Founder’s model — representation of a maquette or the church? 147 1970, 34. E . Lipsmeyer shares the same opinion as Stojakovi} . Cf  . E  . Lipsmeyer  , The Donor And HisChurch Model In Medieval Art From Early Christian Times To The Late Romanesque Period , unpub-lished PhD Thesis ( Rutgers University , New Jersey 1981), 121. Hereafter  : Lipsmeyer  , Donor  . 5 In Serbian : model crkve (  F  . Gerke , Kasna antika i rano hri{}anstvo , Novi Sad 1973  , 218; V . \uri} , Vizantijske freske u Jugoslaviji  , Beograd 1975, 35, 44, 57, 75, 80 ( Hereafter  : \uri} ,Vizantijske freske); Grupa autora , Istorija primewene umetnosti kod Srba, Beograd 1977, 221;  \ . Bo{kovi} , Osvrt na neka pitanja arhitektonskog re{enja crkve sv . Mihajla u Stonu  , Gunja~in zbornik  (1980) 141; R. Qubinkovi} , Crkva Sv. Nikole u Stani~ewu, Zograf 15 (1984) 77. B. Todi} ,Gra~anica, Beograd–Pri{tina 1988, 130, 170, 171; Idem , Srpsko slikarstvo u doba kraqaMilutina, Beograd 1998, 33, 36, 44, 49, 55, 57, 62, 299, 328, 333; S. Gabeli} , Manastir Lesnovo,Beograd 1998, 31, 32, 33, 114, 116, 117; V. Kora} , Spomenici monumentalne srpske arhitekture XIV veka u Povardarju, Beograd 2003, 43, 50, 57, 66). in English : Model of the church ( O . Demus , The mosaics of Norman Siciliy , London 1949, 302,304; C  . Morey , Early Christian Art , London 1953, 164, 179; A . and J  . Styilianou , Donors and dedicatoryinscriptions , supplicants and supplications in the painted churches of Cyprus , J O BG IX (1960) 98, 99, 103,104; Idem , Painted churches of Cyprus , Stourbridge 1964, 53; V  . Lazarev , Old Russian Murals and Mosa-ics  , London 1966, 48, 127, 236; J  . Spatharakis , The portrait in Byzantine Illuminated Manuscripts  , Leiden 1976, 189, 248; T  . Malmquist  , Byzantine 12 th Century Frescoes in Kastoria  , Uppsala 1979, 85, 87;  Lipsmeyer  , The Donor  , 56, 59 et passim ; S  . Kalopissi - Verti , Dedicatory Inscriptions and Donor Portraits inThirteenth Century Churches in Greece  , Wien 1992, 99, 101; A . Kirin - G . Gerov , New Data on the 14 th Century Mural Painting in the Church of St . Nikola in Kalotina , Zograf 23 (1993–94) 53; A . Eastmond  , Royal Imagery in Medieval Georgia , Pennsylvania 1998, 56, 61, 62, 103, 104, 113, 144, 149, 156, 201).  Model of the church building  (  H  . Franses , Symbols , Meaning , Belief  : Donor portraits inByzantine Art , PhD thesis , London University 1992, 8). in German : Das Modell der Kirche ( O . Benndorf  , Antike Baumodelle , Jahreshefte des O sterreichisches Arch a ologishen Instituts in Wien Bd . V , 1 (1902), 178; F  . W  . Deichmann , Ravenna . Hauptstadt des Sp a teantiken und Abendlandes . I – III , Wiesbaden 1969–1976, 178, 180, 345, 373; Ch .  Ihm , Die Programme der Christlichen Apsismalerei vom 4. Jahrhundert bis zum Mitte des 8. Jahrhunderts , Stuttgart 1992, 24, 139, 142, 144, 164, 173, 194; Naumann -  Belting  , Die Euphemia Kirch e an Hippodrom zu Istanbul und ihre Fresken , Berlin 1966, 190; H  . und H  . Buschhausen , Die Marienkirchevon Apollonia in Albanien : Byzantiner  , Normanien und Serben im Kampf um die Via Egnatia , Vienna 1976, 155, 170, 178, 179, 180, 181). in French : le mod  e le de l  ’  e  glise ( T  . Velmans , Les fresques d ’ Ivanovo et la peinture byzantine a lafin du Moyen Age  , JSav (1965) 381; M  . Chatzidakis , A propos de la date et du fondateur de Saint - Luc , CA XIX (1969) 134; M  . Tati} -  Djuri} , L ’ iconographie de la donation dans l ’ ancien art serbe , Actes du  S . Radoj~i} in his book  “ Portraits of Serbian medieval rulers ” discussed therepresentations of church buildings in the founders ’ hands and used the term model of endowment  . 6 This expression is based on the fact that it is the founder  ’ s privilegeto be depicted with the church he is endowing . Only the founder of the church hadsuch a privilege , while other donors could not exercise the same authority . CeciliaDavis - Weyer  , in her study dealing with the establishment of Roman apsidal compo-sition in early Christian Art , includes a large number of examples of  models of en-dowment  dating from the IV to the VIII century , and concludes that the founders , es- pecially the popes , offer their  models to Christ in the presence of the Apostles , St . Peter and St . Paul . 7 Peter Bloch in his lexicographic entry — votive representation (  Dedikationsbild  ) uses the term architectural model  for church buildings in the handof the founder  . He considers that founders offered churches to Christ as a symbolicsacrifice , which resembles the martyr wreaths carried by other figures depicted in thescene . 8 Dirck Koks , Ludwig Heinrich Heidenreich and Elisabeth Lypsmeyer  , alsodealt with this problem and used similar terminology . 9 The term founder  ’   s model  is , therefore , widely accepted for architectural repre-sentations in the hands of founders . It is based on two assumptions .148 ^edomila Marinkovi}XIV e Congr  e s International des e tudes byzantines ( Bucarest 1971) 312; D . Panayotova , Les portraits desdonateurs de Dolna Kamenica , ZRVI 12 (1970) 150, 152; A . Grabar  , L ’ Empereur dans l ’ Art byzantin , London 1971 2 , 109; T  . Velmans , Le portrait dans l ’ art des Pal e ologues , L ’ art et soci e t e a Byzance sousles Pal e ologues , Venice 1971  , 110, 113, 122, 131; A . Grabar  , L ’ e glise de Boiana  , Sofia 1978  , 69; D .  Pignet  -  Panayotova , Recherches sur la peinture en Bulgarie du bas Moyen Age  , Paris 1987, 103, 114,115, 225, 227; S  . Tomekovi} -  Reggiani , Portraits et structures sociales au XII e si e cle . Un aspect du probl e me . Le portrait la  i que . Actes du XV Congr  e s International des e tudes Byzantines II B ( Ath e nes 1976) 826. in Italian : modello di una chiesa  , G . Ieni , La rappresentazione dell ’ oggetto architettoniconell ’ arte medievale con riferimento particolare ai modelli di architettura caucasici , Atti del primosimposio internazionale di arte armena ( Venezia 1975) 250, 252. Hereafter  : Ieni , La rappresentazione . in Russian : modelâ cerkvi (  [. À Amirana{vili , Istoria gruzinskogo iskustva, Moskva1950, 116, 117; V. N. Lazarev , Istorià Vizantièskoè `ivopisi, Moskva 1986, 85, 111, 159; G. I. Vzdornov , Volotovo, freski Uspenià na Volotovom posle bliz Novogoroda  , Moskva 1989, 15, 16). in Bulgarian : model na cãrkvata (  A. Vasiliev , Ktitorski portreti  , Sofià 1960  , 6, 7, 24,25, 26, 30, 45, 46. Hereafter  : Vasiliev , Ktitorski portreti; E. Bakalova, Ba~kovskata kostnica  , Sofià 1977, 35). in Macedonian : modelot (  Z. Rasolkoska-Nikolovska , Crkvata Sv. Gorgi vo Goren Kozjak vosvetlinata na noviete ispituvawa, Simpozijum 1100 godi{nia smrtta na Kiril Solunski I (Skopje 1970) 224, 225; N. No{pal-Nikuqska , Za ktitorskata kompozicija i natpisot voMarkoviot manastir — selo Su{ica, Skopsko, Glasnik Instituta za nacionalna istorija XV , II (Skopje 1971) 229; E. Dimitrova , Manastir Matej~e, Skopje 2002, 185). 6 S. Radoj~i} , Portreti srpskih vladara u sredwem veku, Beograd 1997 2 , 74. 7 C  . Davis - Weyer  , Das Traditio - Legis Bild und seine Nachfolge , M u nchener Jahrbuch der  bildenden Kunst , dritte Folge , XII (1961), 1–34. 8 P  . Bloch , Das Dedikationsbild , Lexicon der christlichen Ikonographie , Bd . I , Freiburg 1968. 9 Model of a church : D . Kocks , Stifterdarstellungen in der italienischen Malerei des 13–15. Jahrhunderts  , Inauguraldissertation der Universit a t zu K  o ln , 1971, 41; Architectural model  : L . H  .  Heydenreich , Architecturmodell , Reallexicon zur deutchen Kunstgeschichte I , Stuttgart 1937, 918–940; model  , donor model   , model of a church : Lipsmeyer  , Donor  , IX , 26, 32, 56, 59, 64 et passim .
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