Long-term Memory

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Long-term Memory. Differs from short-term memory Huge capacity (relatively) slow access time Forgetting occurs more slowly; little decay Long-term memory structure Episodic memory Serial form Semantic memory Derived from episode memory. Semantic Network. association.
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Long-term Memory
  • Differs from short-term memory
  • Huge capacity
  • (relatively) slow access time
  • Forgetting occurs more slowly; little decay
  • Long-term memory structure
  • Episodic memory
  • Serial form
  • Semantic memory
  • Derived from episode memory
  • Semantic Network association Frame-Based Representation Frame-Based Representation Production System
  • IF dog is wagging tail
  • THEN pat dog
  • IF dog is growling
  • THEN run away
  • Long-term Memory Processes
  • How do we store information in LTM?
  • How do we forget?
  • How do we retrieve the information?
  • Storing Information
  • Learning time
  • Total time hypothesis
  • The distribution of practice effect
  • Semantic categories
  • Dog, cat, bird, fish
  • Dog, corgi, labrador
  • 單字 關鍵字 字義 知識分子 Intellectual 女人 Woman 戲院 Theatre 嗜好 Hobby 梯子 Ladder Storing Information: Keyword Mnemonics Storing Information: Mental Image
  • Bower’s study
  • Dog-Bicycle : 45% 80% A cat is building a brick wall A cat is sitting on a brick wall Vs. How to Forget?—Decay Jost’s law of forgetting Ebbinghaus’s forgetting curve How to Forget?—Interference
  • Retroactive interference
  • Ex: the 10th house’s addr.  the 1st house’s addr.
  • Proactive interference
  • Ex: the first week you know the new mobile number
  • Time in experiment How to Forget?—Interference
  • 請看隨堂分發的補充資料
  • 鄭昭明著,認知心理學:理論與實踐,三版,桂冠出版,2006,第190-191頁。
  • 記憶時自動尋求語意的關連
  • 展現了基模理論的預測
  • Retrieving information
  • Two types of information retrieval
  • Recall
  • Recognition
  • Theory: two-process theory
  • Do we really forget something?
  • It’s impossible to prove that we do forget (A. Dix)
  • The ‘tip of the tongue’ experience
  • Recognition
  • Interference
  • Class Discussion
  • Guess how best memorizing pi could be
  • How do you remember the following list?
  • Milk, Sugar, Bananas, Lettuce, Tomato, Newspaper, Cheese, Butter, Bread, Lemonade
  • Share your comments on the memory-enhancing technique
  • A. Dix’s suggestion
  • Share your comments about A. Dix’s suggestion
  • A. Dix’s List
  • Bun
  • Shoe
  • Tree
  • Door
  • Hive
  • Sticks
  • Heaven
  • Gate
  • Wine
  • Hen
  • 1.4 Thinking: Reasoning and Problem Solving Thinking
  • Humans are unique due to this mental process
  • Thinking with partial (or no) information
  • Conscious (and self-aware)
  • And unconscious maybe
  • Two categories of thinking
  • Reasoning
  • Problem solving
  • Not distinct
  • Reasoning
  • To infer conclusion or new knowlege
  • Deductive reasoning
  • Derive logically necessary conclusion
  • 凡人都會死
  • 蘇格拉底是人
  • 蘇格拉底會死
  • 這是有效(valid)的演繹推理嗎?
  • IF it is raining THEN the ground is dry
  • It is raining
  • The ground is dry
  • Deductive Reasoning
  • Deductive reasoning 1
  • Some people are babies
  • Some babies cry ?
  • Deductive reasoning 2
  • Some X is Y
  • Some Y is Z  Some X is Z?
  • Deductive Reasoning
  • Why poor human deduction?
  • To bring world knowledge into reasoning
  • Take short cut
  • If validity is preferred
  • Make every premise explicit
  • Talk to your advisor
  • Related Search
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