Most noticeable in the cities of the United States

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The wilderness, the isolated farm, the plantation, the self-contained New England town, the detached neighborhood are things of the American past. All the world’s a city now and there is no escaping urbanization, not even in outer space. Morton White and Lucia White (1964).
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The wilderness, the isolated farm, the plantation, the self-contained New England town, the detached neighborhood are things of the American past. All the world’s a city now and there is no escaping urbanization, not even in outer space.Morton White and Lucia White (1964) Late 19 self-contained New England town, the detached neighborhood are things of the American past. All the world’s a city now and there is no escaping urbanization, not even in outer space.th and Early 20th Century Urbanization;A Critical Thinking ApproachAmerican Institute for History EducationDr. Steven C. McNeelThe Alexander Hamilton Liberty FellowshipPaterson School DistrictSummer 2007version 2007-01 SWBAT #1: self-contained New England town, the detached neighborhood are things of the American past. All the world’s a city now and there is no escaping urbanization, not even in outer space.Discuss the elements involved in a critical thinking approach to studying and teaching United States History, particularly related to late 19th and 20th century urbanization. SWBAT #2: self-contained New England town, the detached neighborhood are things of the American past. All the world’s a city now and there is no escaping urbanization, not even in outer space.Describe the people, ideas, events, institutions, and underlying values involved in industrialization, migration, and urbanization late in 19th and early 20th century United States. SWBAT #3: self-contained New England town, the detached neighborhood are things of the American past. All the world’s a city now and there is no escaping urbanization, not even in outer space.Apply concepts of critical thinking to studying and teaching industrialization, migration, and urbanization in late 19th and early 20th centuryUnited States. The Power of Using self-contained New England town, the detached neighborhood are things of the American past. All the world’s a city now and there is no escaping urbanization, not even in outer space.Sources—CONTENT The conditions which surround us best justify our cooperation: we meet in the midst of a nation brought to the verge of moral, political, and material ruinThe fruits of the toil of millions are boldly stolen to build up colossal fortunes for a few, unprecedented in the history of mankind; and the possessors of these, in turn, despise the republic and endanger liberty. From the same prolific womb of governmental injustice we breed the two great classesof tramps and millionaires.People’s Party Platform (1892) Most noticeable in the cities of the United States self-contained New England town, the detached neighborhood are things of the American past. All the world’s a city now and there is no escaping urbanization, not even in outer space. The Need for Historical self-contained New England town, the detached neighborhood are things of the American past. All the world’s a city now and there is no escaping urbanization, not even in outer space.Interpretation—UNDERSTANDINGGenerally speaking, thinking is a response to a particular situation, a quest for answers to problems presented by the struggle to exist and to find the good life in a given environment.From the adaptation of old ideas and institutions and the invention of new ones, there emerges a set of ideas and attitudes that—while having some of the features of the intellectual heritage—is, like a new human being,essentially and effectively new.Historian Max Sevelle (1964) METHOD self-contained New England town, the detached neighborhood are things of the American past. All the world’s a city now and there is no escaping urbanization, not even in outer space.—Focusing on the Ideas that drive the sources and allow interpretation:Study the sourcesInterpret what you findAchieve understanding: What did it meanto our historical actorsand what does it all mean to us? How Can Critical Thinking Help our Students Learn United States History? Six Steps in Critical Thinking for Studying United States HistoryComprehension:identifying, describing, categorizing, ordering, and explaining the people, ideas, events, and underlying institutions of history. The West is the most American part of America….What Europe is to Asia, what England is to the rest of Europe,what America is to England, what the Western States and Territories are to the Atlantic States, the heat and pressure and hurry of life always growing as we follow the path of the sun.James Bryce, The American Commonwealth (1888)What does this passage identify, describe,categorize, order, and explain? Knowledge: is to Asia, what England is to the rest of Europe,acquiring background information and developing basic skills in order to study history. Up to and including 1880 the country had a frontier of settlement, but at the present the unsettled area has been so broken up by isolated bodies of settlement that there can hardly be saidto be a frontier line.In the discussion of its extent, its westward movement, etc., it cannot, therefore, any longer have a place in the census reports.Superintendent of the 1890 Census (1891)What background information is needed to give your students for them to understand this observation? Application: settlement, but at the present the unsettled area has been so broken up by isolated bodies of settlement that there can hardly be saiddiscussing specific, factual relationships between people, ideas, events, and the institutions being studied. We have taken into our body politic the refuse of the Paris Commune, incendiaries from Berlin and from Tipperary, some hundreds of thousands of European agitators, who are always at war with every form of government thus far known among civilized nations.New York Tribune (1877)What relationship among people, ideas, events, and institutions is being described?Is this view of things still a problem today? Analysis: Commune, incendiaries from Berlin and from Tipperary, some hundreds of thousands of European agitators, who are always at war with every form of government thus far known among civilized nations.understanding the moral and ethical values and attitudes that guide people and society currently under study. Our confidence in the American race of the future is due to the commingling on this continent of the blood and the characteristics of many people quite as much as to the unhampering environment of a new land.Outlook Magazine editorial (1905)What fundamental attitudes and valuesare reflected here? Synthesis: the commingling on this continent of the blood and the characteristics of many people quite as much as to the unhampering environment of a new land.interpreting the degrees of cooperation and conflict that characterize personal or public events being studied in history. Bringing with them slavery, concubinage, prostitution, the opium vice, the disease of leprosy, the offensive and defensive organization of clans and guilds, the lowest standard of living known, and a detestation of the people with whom they live...they form a community within a city and there live the Chinese life.Senator George C. Perkins of California (1906)What instances of cooperation and conflictare suggested in this quotation? Evaluation: opium vice, the disease of leprosy, the offensive and defensive organization of clans and guilds, the lowest standard of living known, and a detestation of the people with whom they live...they form a community within a city and there live the Chinese life.promoting imaginative or reflective thinking to achieve a flexible and comprehensive understanding of United States History. The exclusion of immigrants unable to read or write, as proposed by this bill, will operate against the most undesirable and harmful part of our present immigration and shut out elementswhich no thoughtful or patriotic man can wish to see multipliedamong the people of the United States.Senator Henry Cabot Lodge (1896)What might have caused Senator Lodge to have such an attitude and what do you think happened next? Industrialization and Migration in proposed by this bill, will operate against the most undesirable and harmful part of our present immigration and shut out elementsLate 19th and Early 20th CenturyUnited States;To understand the growth of cities inthe United States you need to understand why peoplewanted to come (industrialization) andfrom where they came (migration) American and the World proposed by this bill, will operate against the most undesirable and harmful part of our present immigration and shut out elementsWe have at length reached the condition of one of the great Powers of the earth, and yet we are butin the infancy of our career.The man is still living, who will live to see one hundred and fifty millions of people, free, prosperous, and intelligent, swaying the destinies of this country, and exerting a mighty influence upon those of the world.Senator Lewis Cass (1852) Missionary Impulse with the World proposed by this bill, will operate against the most undesirable and harmful part of our present immigration and shut out elementsThere is not a nation upon earth which, in fifty years, can by all possible reformation place itself in circumstances so favorable as our own for the free, unembarrassed applications of physical effort and pecuniary and moral power to evangelize the world.Lyman Beecher (1835) Defense of our Interests proposed by this bill, will operate against the most undesirable and harmful part of our present immigration and shut out elementsWe owe it…to candor and to the amicable relations existing between the United States and those [European] Powers to declare that we should consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this [western] hemisphere, as dangerous to our peace and safety.President James Monroe (1823) Manifest Destiny proposed by this bill, will operate against the most undesirable and harmful part of our present immigration and shut out elementsThere are today two great peoples on the earth who, setting off from different points of departure, seem to be advancing towards the same goal: they are the Russians andthe Anglo-Americans….Each of them seems to be summonedby a secret plan of Providence one dayto hold in its hands the destinies of half the world.Alexis de Tocqueville (1935) White man’s burden, both abroad and at home Civilizing Duty proposed by this bill, will operate against the most undesirable and harmful part of our present immigration and shut out elementsThe great nations are rapidly absorbing…all the waste places of the earth. It is a movement which makes for civilization and the advancement of the race. As one of the great nations of the world the United States must not fall out of the line of march.Senator Henry Cabot Lodge (1895) United States and the World proposed by this bill, will operate against the most undesirable and harmful part of our present immigration and shut out elementsin the late 19th and early 20th CenturyMissionDefenseDestinyDutyApplied not only to people we met “out there,”but also those who came to us Pre-Civil War United States proposed by this bill, will operate against the most undesirable and harmful part of our present immigration and shut out elementsWe have never been a nation; we are only an aggregate of communities, ready to fall apart at the first serious shock.George Templeton Strong (1861) Some believed the United States proposed by this bill, will operate against the most undesirable and harmful part of our present immigration and shut out elementswas falling apartI believe the heaviest blow ever dealt at Liberty’s Head, will be dealt by this nation [United States] in the ultimate failure of its example to the Earth. See what is passing now.Look at the exhausted Treasury; the paralyzed government; the unworthy representatives of a free people; the desperate contest between the North and the South; the iron curb and brazen muzzle fastened upon every man who speaks his mind. The intrusion of the most pitiful, mean, malicious, creeping, crawling, sneaking party spirit into all transactions of life—even into the appointment of physicians to pauper madhouses—the silly, drivelling, slanderous, wicked, monstrous Party Press.Novelist Charles Dickens (1842) And 50 Years Later… creeping, crawling, sneaking party spirit into all transactions of life—even into the appointment of physicians to pauper madhouses—the silly, drivelling, slanderous, wicked, monstrous Party Press.Corruption dominates the ballot-box, the legislature, the Congress, and touches even the ermine of the bench. The people are demoralized; most of the States have been compelled to isolate the voters at the polling-places to prevent universal intimidation or bribery. The newspapers are largely subsidized or muzzled; public opinion silenced; business prostrated; our homes covered with mortgages; labor impoverished; and the land concentrating in the hands of the capitalists.People’s Party Platform (1892)What was causing this? The Civil War as a Launching Pad creeping, crawling, sneaking party spirit into all transactions of life—even into the appointment of physicians to pauper madhouses—the silly, drivelling, slanderous, wicked, monstrous Party Press.for Industrialized Urbanization A Spirit of Reform Continues—sense of a need to “reconstruct” the whole country The Overall Goal of “reconstruct” the whole countrythe Post-Civil War Reform Movement…The maintenance of the values and moral assumptions that resided at the center of contemporary conventional thought, in the face of vast demographic, technological,and commercial changes.Assumptions like opportunity, equality,participation, and conformity The Underlying Concern for “reconstruct” the whole countryPost-Civil War Reformers…The mitigation of the harsher cruelties of life for those who remained beyond the boundaries of society’s privileges and the preponderance of its rewards.Historians Richard M. Abrams and Lawrence W. Levine (1965) Who Remained “beyond the boundaries” “reconstruct” the whole countryof privilege and reward?Free BlacksNative AmericansMany childrenFarmers and many rural folks Some foreign immigrantsparticularly as they began to appear in cities Industrialization—some important ideas “reconstruct” the whole country Industrializing the Civil War “reconstruct” the whole countryWar is not a question of valor, but a question of money. It is not regulated by the laws of honor, but by the laws of trade.I understand the practical problem to be solvedin crushing the rebellion of despotism against representative government is who can throw the most projectiles. Who can afford the most iron or lead?Representative Roscoe Conkling (1861) Incorporation “reconstruct” the whole countryIf a limited financial group shall come to represent the capitalistic end of industry, the perils of socialism…taking of the instruments of industry, [incorporation] may be looked upon by even intelligent people as possibly the lesser of two evils.The Boston Herald (1901) Transportation and Urban Markets “reconstruct” the whole countryHistorians have described the growth of the giant corporations by emphasizing the demand for large-scale organization created by completion of a national transportation system and the growth of large urban markets.Historians Richard Abrams and Lawrence Levine (1964) Factory Production “reconstruct” the whole countryRemarkable applications of this system are to be found in the manufacture of boots, shoes, watches, musical instruments, clothing, metal goods, general firearms, carriages and wagons, woolen goods, rubber goods, and even the slaughtering of hogs.Superintendent of the 1880 Census (1883) Vertical Integration “reconstruct” the whole countryBy the first years of the twentieth century, however, many American industries were dominated by enterprises that had created their own distributing organizations, sometimes including even retailing outlets, and had formed their own purchasing systems, in some cases controlling their supplies of semi-finished and raw materials.Historians Richard Abrams and Lawrence Levine (1964) Efficiency of Operation “reconstruct” the whole countryIn the 1890s, one of the greatest challenges facing the managers of the newly integrated corporation was to develop procedures to assure their efficient operation.Historians Richard Abrams and Lawrence Levine (1964)central office and departmentswritten policies and proceduresprofessional administrative staffdelegation of some capital expendituresto the plant levelforecasting costs and profits All these ideas came together to make industrialization the overall driving force for late 19th and early 20th century United States. Migration—the domestic and foreign flow overall driving force for late 19into the United States Fodder for the War overall driving force for late 19A rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight.Anti-conscription slogan in New York City (1863)Many ofpoorest people in the city at this timewere recent immigrants, particularly Irish Sources of Migrants after the Civil War overall driving force for late 19Former Black slavesUnited States farmers and rural dwellersEuropean immigrants (Old and New)Other immigrants (Latin America, Asia,and the Pacific region)Consider three interpretations of interactionbetween the immigrant and his new environment(taken from Abrams and Levine) Immigration to the United States overall driving force for late 19 Migration patterns begun largely overall driving force for late 19in the 1890s and 1900s What happened to immigrants—what choices overall driving force for late 19did they have? Anglo-conformity overall driving force for late 19They [immigrants] must cast off the European skin, never to resume it. They must look forward to their posterity rather than backward to their ancestors; they must be sure that whatever their own feelings may be, those of their children will cling to the prejudices of this country.John Quincy Adams (1818) Melting Pot overall driving force for late 19He is an American, who leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced, the new government he obeys, and the new rank he holds. He becomes an American by being received in the broad lap of our great Alma Mater. Here individuals of all nations are melted into a new race of men, whose labours and posterity will one day cause great changes in the world.J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur,Letters from an American Farmer (1782) Cultural Pluralism overall driving force for late 19Our American citizenship might be built without disturbing these [foreign] foundations which were laid of old time.Jane Addams, Twenty Years at Hull House (1914)Unable to participate in the normal associational affairs of the community, the Irish felt obliged to erect a society within a society, to act together in their own way. In every contact therefore the group, acting apart from other sections of the community, became intensely aware of its peculiar and exclusive identity.Historian Oscar Handlin (1959) Urbanization—the flow into the cities overall driving force for late 19 Turning Toward the Cities overall driving force for late 19The great city is a place where vice feeds upon itself like a festering sore thriving on its own rottenness. The best interests of our Republic demand the widest possible extension of our population outside the cities.Senator Moses Clapp (1914)The paradox is, of course, the continuing worship of rural, countrified life in a nation where the pull of progress has created unmistakably urban civilization.Historians Richard Abrams and Lawrence Levine (1964) The Problem Identified overall driving force for late 19It is well-nigh universally agreed…that it is deeply to be deplored that the people should continue to stream into the alreadyover-crowded cities, and should thus further depletethe country districts.Ebenezer Howard (1898) Over-crowded Cities led to… overall driving force for late 19Vice and other crimeDisease
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