NGS Cancer Systems Biology Workshop Variant Calling and Structural Variants from Exomes /WGS

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NGS Cancer Systems Biology Workshop Variant Calling and Structural Variants from Exomes /WGS. Ramesh Nair May 30, 2014. Outline. Types of genetic variation Framework for variant discovery Variant calling methods and variant callers Filtering of variants Structural variants.
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NGS Cancer Systems Biology WorkshopVariant Calling and Structural Variants from Exomes/WGS Ramesh Nair May 30, 2014 Outline Types of genetic variation Framework for variant discovery Variant calling methods and variant callers Filtering of variants Structural variants Variant Calling Why call variants? TCGA Program Overview “There are at least 200 forms of cancer, and many more subtypes. Each of these is caused by errors in DNA that cause cells to grow uncontrolled. Identifying the changes in each cancer’s complete set of DNA – its genome – and understanding how such changes interact to drive the disease will lay the foundation for improving cancer prevention, early detection and treatment.” Variant Calling Types of Genetic Variation Cancer is driven by genomic alterations like:
  • Single Nucleotide Aberrations
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) - mutations shared amongst a population
  • Single Nucleotide Variations (SNVs) - private mutations
  • Short Insertions or Deletions (indels)
  • Copy Number Variations (CNVs)
  • Larger Structural Variations (SVs)
  • Variant Calling SNPs vs. SNVs Both are aberrations at a single nucleotide
  • SNP
  • Aberration expected at the position for any member in the species (well-characterized)
  • Occur in population at some frequency so expected at a given locus
  • Validated in population
  • Catalogued in dbSNP (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/snp)
  • SNV
  • Aberration seen in only one individual (not well characterized)
  • Occur at low frequency so not common
  • Not validated in population Really a matter of frequency of occurrence
  • Variant Calling SNVs of interest
  • Non-synonymous mutations
  • Result in amino acid change
  • Impact protein sequence
  • Missense, nonsense, stop gained/lost mutations
  • Somatic mutations in cancer
  • Tumor-specific mutations
  • Variant Calling Catalogs of human genetic variation
  • The 1000 Genomes Project
  • http://www.1000genomes.org/
  • SNPs and structural variants from 2500 individuals from about 25 populations
  • HapMap
  • http://hapmap.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
  • identify and catalog genetic similarities and differences
  • dbSNP
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/snp/
  • Database of SNPs and multiple small-scale variations
  • COSMIC
  • http://www.sanger.ac.uk/genetics/CGP/cosmic/
  • Catalog of Somatic Mutations in Cancer
  • TCGA
  • http://cancergenome.nih.gov/
  • The Cancer Genome Atlas researchers are mapping the genetic changes in 20 selected cancers
  • ClinVar
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/
  • aggregates information about sequence variation and its relationship to human health
  • Variant Calling Challenges of accurate somatic variant calling Not as simple as identifying sites with a variant allele in the tumor not present in the normal Artifacts from PCR amplification or targeted (exome) capture Machine sequencing errors Incorrect local alignment of reads Tumor heterogeneity Tumor-normal cross-contamination Variant Calling A framework for variation discovery
  • Phase 1: Mapping
  • Place reads with an initial alignment on the reference genome using mapping algorithms
  • Refine initial alignments
  • local realignment around indels
  • molecular duplicates are eliminated
  • Generate the technology-independent SAM/BAM alignment map format
  • Accurate mapping crucial for variation discovery
  • DePristo, M.A. et al. A framework for variation discovery and genotyping using next-generation DNA sequencing data. Nat Genet. 43(5):491-8. PMID: 21478889 (2011). Variant Calling A framework for variation discovery
  • Phase 2: Discovery of raw variants
  • Analysis-ready SAM/BAM files are analyzed to discover all sites with statistical evidence for an alternate allele present among the samples
  • SNPs, SNVs, short indels, and SVs
  • SNVs DePristo, M.A. et al. A framework for variation discovery and genotyping using next-generation DNA sequencing data. Nat Genet. 43(5):491-8. PMID: 21478889 (2011). Variant Calling A framework for variation discovery
  • Phase 3: Discovery of analysis-ready variants
  • technical covariates, known sites of variation, genotypes for individuals, linkage disequilibrium, and family and population structure are integrated with the raw variant calls from Phase 2 to separate true polymorphic sites from machine artifacts
  • at these sites high-quality genotypes are determined for all samples
  • SNVs DePristo, M.A. et al. A framework for variation discovery and genotyping using next-generation DNA sequencing data. Nat Genet. 43(5):491-8. PMID: 21478889 (2011). Variant Calling A framework for variation discovery DePristo, M.A. et al. A framework for variation discovery and genotyping using next-generation DNA sequencing data. Nat Genet. 43(5):491-8. PMID: 21478889 (2011). Variant Calling Variant calling methods variant SNP Ref A Ind1 G/G Ind2 A/G Nielsen R, Paul JS, Albrechtsen A, Song YS. Genotype and SNP calling from next-generation sequencing data. Nat Rev Genet. 2011 Jun;12(6):443-51. PMID: 21587300. http://seqanswers.com/wiki/Software/list
  • > 15 different algorithms
  • Three categories
  • Allele counting
  • Probabilistic methods, e.g. Bayesian model
  • to quantify statistical uncertainty
  • Assign priors based on observed allele frequency of multiple samples
  • Heuristic approach
  • Based on thresholds for read depth, base quality, variant allele frequency, statistical significance
  • Some variant callers VCF (Variant Call Format) is a standard file format for representing variant calls Roth, A. et al. JointSNVMix : A Probabilistic Model For Accurate Detection Of Somatic Mutations In Normal/Tumour Paired Next Generation Sequencing Data. Bioinformatics (2012). Larson, D.E. et al. SomaticSniper: identification of somatic point mutations in whole genome sequencing data. Bioinformatics. 28(3):311-7 (2012). Koboldt, D. et al. VarScan 2: Somatic mutation and copy number alteration discovery in cancer by exome sequencing. Genome Res. 22(3):568-76. doi: 10.1101/gr.129684.111(2012). DePristo, M.A. et al. A framework for variation discovery and genotyping using next-generation DNA sequencing data. Nat Genet. 43(5):491-8. PMID: 21478889 (2011). Saunders, C.T. et al. Strelka: accurate somatic small-variant calling from sequenced tumor-normal sample pairs. Bioinformatics 28(14):1811-7. doi : 10.1093/bioinformatics/bts271 (2012). Cibulskis, K. et al. Sensitive detection of somatic point mutations in impure and heterogeneous cancer samples. Nat Biotechnol. 31(3):213-9. doi : 10.1038/nbt.2514 (2013). Variant Calling Allele Counting Example G6PC2 hg19 chr2:169764377 A>G Asn286Asp
  • The two-tailed for the Fisher’s Exact Test p-value is < 0.0001
  • The association between rows (groups) and columns (outcomes) is considered to be extremely statistically significant.
  • JointSNVMix & VarScan2 (Fisher’s Exact Test)
  • Allele count data from the normal and tumor compared using a two tailed Fisher’s exact test
  • If the counts are significantly different the position is labeled as a variant position (e.g., p-value < 0.001) 2x2 Contingency Table
  • Variant Calling REF allele G6PC2 hg19 chr2:169764377 A>G Asn286Asp Normal Depth=25 REF=25 ALT=0 Tumor Depth=31 REF=15 ALT=16 Variant Calling VarScan2 Variant Calling Algorithm VarScan2 calls somatic variants (SNPs and indels) using a heuristic method and a statistical test based on the number of aligned reads supporting each allele. http://varscan.sourceforge.net/index.html If tumor matches normal:         If tumor and normal match the reference → Call Reference        Else tumor and normal do not match the reference             →Call GermlineElse tumor does not match normal:     Calculate significance of allele frequency difference by Fisher's Exact Test         If difference is significant (p-value < threshold):            If normal matches reference                →Call Somatic            Else If normal is heterozygous                →Call LOH            Else normal and tumor are variant, but different                →Call Unknown        Else difference is not significant:        Combined tumor and normal read counts for each allele. Recalculate p-value.            →Call Germline Variant Calling Strand Bias SNV Filtering Bentley, D.R. et al. Accurate whole human genome sequencing using reversible terminator chemistry. Nature 456, 53–59 (2008). Wheeler, D.A. et al. The complete genome of an individual by massively parallel DNA sequencing. Nature 452, 872–876 (2008). Larson, D.E. et al. SomaticSniper: Identification of Somatic Point Mutations in Whole Genome Sequencing Data. Bioinformatics Advance Access (2011). Pre-processing in the mapping phase and SNV filtering help minimize false positives
  • Absent in dbSNP
  • Exclude LOH events
  • Retain non-synonymous coding SNVs
  • Tumor total reads (≥ 3) and variant reads
  • Variant allele frequency in tumor and normal
  • Mapping quality (≥ 40) and SNV quality (≥ 20)
  • Max SNV calls (< 3) within a given window (10 bp) around the site
  • SNV farther than a given distance (10 bp) from a predicted indelof a certain quality (≥ 50)
  • Strand balance/bias
  • Concordance across various SNV callers
  • Which variant caller to use? ) Pabinger, S. et al. A survey of tools for variant analysis of next-generation genome sequencing data. Brief. Bioinform. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbs086 (2013). O'Rawe, J. et al. Low concordance of multiple variant-calling pipelines: practical implications for exome and genome sequencing. Genome Medicine, 5:28 doi:10.1186/gm432 (2013).
  • Substantial discrepancies exist among the calls from different callers.
  • Callers appear to be less concordant for calling somatic SNVs than germline SNPs.
  • Sensitivity and Specificity not only vary across callers but also along the genome within any caller.
  • Depend on factors like depth of sequence coverage in the tumor and matched normal, the local sequencing error rate, the allelic fraction of the mutation and the evidence thresholds used to declare a mutation
  • MuTect claims to be more sensitive than other methods for low-allelic-fraction and low read support events while remaining highly specific.
  • Multiple variant callers needed in pipeline (e.g., reduce false negatives).
  • Variant Calling Variant Annotation http://snp.gs.washington.edu/SeattleSeqAnnotation/ http://www.broadinstitute.org/cancer/cga/oncotator http://www.openbioinformatics.org/annovar/
  • SeattleSeq
  • annotates SNVs and small indels, both known and novel
  • includes dbSNP, gene names and accession numbers, variation functions (e.g. missense), protein positions and amino-acid changes, conservation scores, HapMap frequencies, PolyPhen predictions, and clinical association
  • Oncotator
  • annotates human genomic point mutations and indels with data relevant to cancer researchers
  • aggregates genomic, protein, and cancer annotations
  • Annovar
  • annotates genetic variants detected from diverse genomes including human genome
  • provides gene, region, and filter based annotations
  • Variant Calling Why study Structural Variation (SV) Zang, Z.J. et al. Genetic and Structural Variation in the Gastric Cancer Kinome Revealed through Targeted Deep Sequencing. Cancer Res January 1, 71; 29 (2011). Shibayama, A. et al. MECP2 Structural and 30-UTR Variants in Schizophrenia, Autism and Other Psychiatric Diseases: A Possible Association With Autism. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B (Neuropsychiatric Genetics) 128B:50–53 (2004). Common in “normal” human genomes - major cause of phenotypic variation Common in certain diseases, particularly cancer Now showing up in rare disease; autism, schizophrenia Variant Calling Classes of structural variation Alkan, C. et al. Genome structural variation discovery and genotyping. Nature Reviews Genetics 12, 363-376 (2011). Variant Calling Software Tools Chen, K. et al. BreakDancer: an algorithm for high-resolution mapping of genomic structural variation. Nature Methods 6, 677 - 681 (2009). Ye, K. et al. Pindel: a pattern growth approach to detect break points of large deletions and medium sized insertions from paired-end short reads. Bioinformatics 25 (21): 2865-2871 (2009). Abyzov, A. et al. CNVnator: An approach to discover, genotype, and characterize typical and atypical CNVs from family and population genome sequencing. Genome Res. 21: 974-984 (2011). Lam, H.Y.K. et al. Nucleotide-resolution analysis of structural variants using BreakSeq and a breakpoint library. Nature Biotechnology 28, 47–55 (2010). Variant Calling BreakDancer Chen, K. et al.BreakDancer: an algorithm for high-resolution mapping of genomic structural variation. Nature Methods 6, 677 - 681 (2009).
  • BreakDancerMax
  • Detects anomalous read pairs indicative of deletions, insertions, inversions, intrachromosomaland interchromosomal translocations
  • A pair of arrows represents the location and the orientation of a read pair
  • A dotted line represents a chromosome in the analyzed genome
  • A solid line represents a chromosome in the reference genome.
  • BreakDancerMini
  • focuses on detecting small indels (typically 10–100 bp) that are not routinely detected by BreakDancerMax
  • Variant Calling BreakDancerMax Workflow Chen, K. et al. BreakDancer: an algorithm for high-resolution mapping of genomic structural variation. Nature Methods 6, 677 - 681 (2009). Variant Calling Summary Accurate mapping and processing of NGS data are critical for analysis-ready reads and for downstream variant calling. Variant filtering is needed to reduce false positives. Multiple variant callers are needed in pipeline to reduce false negatives. Variant annotation helps determine biologically relevant variants. Variant calling pipeline should include the right set of tools and filters for the job. Variant Calling
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