Origin, evolution and distribution of life in the Solar System: Constraints from space weather

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Smr 1749 COST Action 724. Space weather at other planets. Origin, evolution and distribution of life in the Solar System: Constraints from space weather. Lecture 2: Implications of Space Weather for the Search of Life. Julian Chela-Flores The Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste, Italia and
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Smr 1749 COST Action 724 Space weather at other planets Origin, evolution and distribution of life in the Solar System: Constraints from space weather Lecture 2: Implications of Space Weather for the Search of Life Julian Chela-Flores The Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste, Italia and Instituto de Estudios Avanzados IDEA, Caracas, R.B. Venezuela Plan of the lecture
  • Space radiation sources in our own solar system.
  • The Jovian system.
  • A component of space weather from the Jovian system.
  • Space weather in other planets of other solar systems.
  • Part 1 Space Radiation Sources in our own Solar System Solar radiation in the Earth middle and lower atmosphere The Earth : History of Solar Radiation C.S. Cockell, Planetary and Space Sci. 48 (2000) 203-214. Abundance of stromatolites in the fossil record(time scale in Gyrs) Present 2.5 3.5 4.6 Fossils of ancient life on Earth Mars: History of Solar Radiation C.S. Cockell, Planetary and Space Sci. 48 (2000) 203-214. Venus: History of Solar Radiation C.S. Cockell, Planetary and Space Sci. 48 (2000) 203-214. The Genesis mission
  • Launched in August of 2001 to capture samples from the Sun.
  • The samples of solar wind particles, collected on ultra-pure wafers of gold, sapphire, silicon and diamond, were returned for analysis.
  • A probe in a solar north-south polar orbit The Ulysses dust detector Io’s volcanic surface(Galileo) Part 2 The Jovian system International Journal of Astrobiology (2006) The images of Voyayers and Galileo NASA, 1977-1989 The Solar System Family The images of Voyayers and Galileo NASA, 1977-1989 The Solar System Family Udaeus-Minos intersection Voyager Galileo The icy surface of Europa Internal heat may provideecosystems driven by hydrothermal vents (a ‘tidal effect’) Life can survive on Europa under ionizing radiation The Hydrobot gate submersible melter black smoker Horvath et al, 1997 The Europa icy surface (Spectrometer data from near IR) and ‘patchy’ Distribution of non-ice component albedo per pixel McCord et al, Science 280 (1998), 1242 4 km/pixel High resolution albedo image Where is the ‘S-belt’ region of highest concentration of non-ice elements? Udaeus-Minos intersection S-belt Conamara Pywill Interstellar molecules non-ice elements?(Pascale Ehrenfreund & Steven B. Charnley, 2000) Non-water ice constituents staining the non-ice elements?icy and patchy surface of Europa What are the conceivable sources of S-stains on the icy and patchy surface of Europa
  • External: Ions may be implanted from the Jovian plasma, or alternatively the source is
  • Internal: Sulphur may be due to cryovolcanism, or we can ask:
  • Could the sulphur be biogenic?
  • The Europa Microprobe patchy surface of Europain-situ Explorer(The EMPIE study)
  • One way to decide on the sulphur source is to land on the icy surface of Europa.
  • The lander will have a set of 4 miniprobes (350 gm each).
  • Tirso Velasco and colleagues The proposed lander on the icy surface of Europa patchy surface of Europa
  • Expected penetration in ice is 72.5 cm.
  • Mass constraint for the microprobes 1.7 kg.
  • Mass spectrometry patchy surface of Europa
  • MS is the right tool. The image shows a light one built for the Bepi-Colombo 2012 mission to Mercury, although the lander was later cancelled.
  • When living organisms process sulphur they tend to fractionate isotopes differently from geological processes.
  • Lander instrument (120 x 60 mm; 500 g) Part 3 patchy surface of Europa A component of space weather from the Jovian system The delta patchy surface of Europa34S-parameter
  • Canyon Diablo Meteorite (CDM) is one of the most famous meteorites, a troilite (FeS), found in a crater, north of Phoenix, Arizona.
  • CDM coincides with the average terrestrial ratio of the isotopes 32S and 34S.
  • Sulphur bacteria patchy surface of Europa Sulfate-reducing bacteria patchy surface of Europa
  • Unite H with S atoms from dissolved sulfate of seawater to form hydrogen sulfide: 4H2 + H2SO4 –» H2S + 4H2O + 39 kilocalories
  • The H2S then combines with Fe in sediments to form grains of pyrite.
  • Iron sulfide, FeS2 Partition of S isotopes between sedimentary sulfate and biogenic pyrite
  • Dissolved sulfate on evaporation forms sulfate minerals (such as gypsum) depleted of 32S by 20 per mil.
  • The H2S given off by the bacteria is enriched in 32S by 20 per mil.
  • Bacterial sulfur isotope fractionation in marine environments The Apollo missions environments Sites of the sample-return Apollo missions environments Samples of the lunar material returned by the Apollo missions troctolite basalt arnothosite The delta missions34S-parameter in terrestrial, meteoritic and lunar material Terrestrial Sulfate coexisting with seawater From measurements in basins off California: insoluble sulfide, mostly pyrite -40 Meteoritic Lunar Part 4 missions Space weather in other planets of other solar systems An icy "super-Earth" (x13) missions and hypothetical moon A red dwarf 9,000 light-years away Are there biosignatures in the exoplanets missions? The search for Earth-like exoplanets missions
  • The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) will consist of space telescopes.
  • Darwin will use three space telescopes (3 m in diameter) and a fourth spacecraft to serve as communications hub.
  • TPF and Darwin will go beyond the three previous techniques for exoplanet hunting: wobbling stars, transits and microlensing (when a dark mass passes in front of a background star, the light from the star can be significantly magnified).
  • TPF, 2014 and 2020 Darwin, 2015 How, when and where did life start? missions Give us in the short term an independent origin of life on Europa, Mars, Titan, or Enceladus and the doors to progress will open. Discussion missions
  • Brain evolution may offer hints of the probability that a human level of intelligence may arise in an independent evolutionary line, provided the space weather conditions are favorable.
  • The SETI project is an observational tool currently available to bioastronomers for searching for this aspect of evolution.
  • Discussion missions
  • The component of space weather generated by the Jovian magnetosphere is of interest for the understanding of potential biosignatures on Europa.
  • The close integration of space weather research with astrobiology is at a preliminary stage.
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