Physical Security Performance Measures

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Security Performance Measures
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    Table of Contents i. Preface........................................................................................................................................11. Background.................................................................................................................................22. Applicability and Scope..............................................................................................................22.1 Cautionary Note....................................................................................................................22.2 Policy....................................................................................................................................33. Guidance.....................................................................................................................................34. Performance Measures................................................................................................................34.1 Input/Process Measures........................................................................................................34.1.1 Input/Process Measures Examples...............................................................................44.2 Output Measures...................................................................................................................44.2.1 Output Measures Examples.........................................................................................44.3 Outcome Measures................................................................................................................64.3.1 Outcome Measures Examples......................................................................................64.4 Note on the Examples...........................................................................................................74.5 Performance Measurement Process Chart............................................................................75. Performance Measurement Implementation...............................................................................85.1 Headquarters and Field Level Interaction.............................................................................86. Conclusion..................................................................................................................................97. References.................................................................................................................................107.1 Appendix A: Quick Reference Guide................................................................................107.2 Appendix B: Annotated Bibliography................................................................................12ii    i. Preface The Interagency Security Committee (ISC) srcinated by Executive Order 12977 after theOklahoma City bombing of the Alfred Murrah Federal Building in 1995.The day after the attack,the President ordered an assessment of vulnerability of Federal facilities to terrorism or violence.The Vulnerability Report developed minimum physical security standards for civilian federallyowned or leased facilities.Protecting employees and private citizens who visit U.S. government-owned or leased facilitiesfrom all hazards is a complex and challenging responsibility. It is one of the top national priorities and the mission of the ISC.In keeping with the authority provided in Section 5 of Executive Order 12977 and amended byExecutive Order 13286, this document provides ISC policy, which requires Federal departmentsand agencies to use performance measurement and testing to assess physical security programs.This document outlines recommended guidance to Federal departments and agencies for implementing this policy. The guidance provides a basic performance model that measuresinputs and accomplishments. It identifies the performance measurement cycle processes and  provides examples of performance metrics for physical security. The ISC recognizes Federaldepartments and agencies will implement this policy and guidance in a manner reflecting theunique and varied mission requirements of their respective components.1    1. Background All major terrorist attacks in the United States (the Oklahoma City bombing, the two World Trade Center attacks, the attack on the Pentagon, and the Brentwood, Maryland anthrax attack)involved Federal facilities. Subsequently, many government facilities have received increased security funding in response to domestic and international terrorism. In several homeland security studies, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) concluded that much remains to be done to improve the overall management and protection of the Federal facility infrastructure.In two separate reports, the GAO identified policy and management issues specifically directed to the ISC. The GAO recommended the ISC promote key practices associated with themanagement of physical security programs (GAO 05-49), including the development and use of  performance measurement.In another study, the GAO found there is no government-wide guidance or standards for measuring facility protection performance (GAO 6-612). Without effective performancemeasurement data, the GAO said decision makers may not have sufficient information toevaluate whether their investments have improved security, reduced Federal facilities’vulnerability, and reduced the level of risk to an acceptable level. The GAO concluded the ISCshould issue guidance applicable to all Federal departments and agencies on the use of  performance measurement and testing procedures to assess the effectiveness of their security programs.Measurement is an essential component of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA) and the Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART) from the Officeof Management and Budget (OMB). GPRA requires a five-year strategic plan providingmission, goals, and a description of how the accomplishment of goals will be measured. PART isa tool by which the OMB assesses the effectiveness of an agency’s or department’s program based on responses to a series of questions generic to all programs. OMB rates the respective program as either   Effective ,  Moderately Effective ,  Adequate ,  Ineffective , or   Results Not  Demonstrated, and then makes budget decisions accordingly. The GPRA and PART principlesshould be adhered to for internal goal setting, program assessment, and resource allocation. 2. Applicability and Scope Performance measurement data is essential to appropriate decision making on the allocation of resources. Objective, unbiased information as to what is being accomplished, what needsadditional attention (management focus and resources), and what is performing at targetexpectation levels, is vital to appropriate resource allocation decisions. Security counter-measures must compete with other program objectives for limited funding. Performancemeasurement tools offer security professionals a way to measure a program’s capabilities and effectiveness and can help demonstrate the need to obligate funds for facility security. 2.1 Cautionary Note While performance measurement and testing are necessary for effective management and oversight, they can become burdensome if senior management does not utilize them properly.GAO observed in a study (GAO-6-612) that “agencies face obstacles in developing meaningful,outcome-oriented performance goals and in collecting data that can be used to assess the trueimpact of facility protection efforts.” Further, “in some programs, such as facility protection,outcomes are not quickly achieved or readily observable or its relationship to the program is2
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