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  • There seems to be an epistemological void in the interpretation of the relationship between the professor and the pre-service teacher of English. There is a need to study a dialogic approach that sheds light into it. The learners’ expectations about the professors’ role contrasts with the professors’ dogmas on their role and actions. They both miss the opportunity to develop their potential.
  • EVIDENCE OF THE PROBLEM (The Researcher’s experience)
  • Learners do not use English materials outside of the classroom. Learning pathways are not identified by the students nor the teachers to promote autonomy (Zorro et al, 2004),
  • Professors do not seem to promote autonomous learning processes (Zorro et al, 2007),
  • Learning and teaching worksheets are not enough to supply students needs (Zorro et al, 2007b),
  • There is a need of self-access centers that help learners cope with their needs and interests (Zorro et al, 2012).
  • JUSTIFICATIONTHE DIALOGIC APPROACH FORAUTONOMOUS LEARNING deal with studies related to teaching and learning theories and practices for proposing… . Self regulating strategies by means of Tutoring sessions to transform Participants L2 Curricula B.A in TEFL Program RESEARCH QUESTION How may a dialogic approach promote self-regulation to develop autonomy in EFL learning? GENERAL OBJECTIVE Explore a dialogic approach teacher-student to communicate about L2 development. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
  • To establish how a dialogic approach promotes self-regulation
  • To define the steps and criteria to design, adapt and validate tutoring sessions.
  • To determine the role of dialogic tutoring and self regulation in the process of teaching and learning in a teacher education program.
  • To assess in which phase of autonomy the learners are.
  • To evaluate the impact of the innovation.
  • Literature review Whatweknow about self-regulation: For Zimmerman (2000) in classroom interaction, the L2 learners construct the awareness of self-regulation gradually from dialogic interaction when they negotiate with peers and tutors. Students do it in pairs or groups Learners feel they have a right to talk freely and are also free from the teacher’s control; and the idea of equality because students in groups are equal, and the power of teacher within groups is also diminished or neutralized. Literature review
  • Nunan (1997) proposes five implementing models that contribute to a model of autonomy.
  • 1. Awareness
  • 2. Engagement
  • 3. Intervention
  • 4. Creation
  • 5. Trascendence
  • Literaturereview We do not know about selfregulation
  • How learners adapt, transform or innovate in L2 learning . Also how learners contribute by means of scaffolding. (Lantolf 2000, Vygotsky). Whatweknow about dialogic approaches.
  • The types of dialogues learners interact with tutors to know about his/her interests,perceptions and beliefs
  • Gardner, D & Miller, L. (1996), propose independent tasks for the learners to help them build a pathway.
  • Holec (1980) presents self-directed learning by using self access centers to develop cognitive and metacognitive worksheets i n Chávez, M. (1998)
  • Research Metodology(Hernández, S et al (2010) ResearchMethodology
  • From a sociocultural approachtheory and under a qualitativeparadigm a group of teachers (tutors) searchforanalysinghowinteracion and self-regulationworkson L2 processesbymeans of a dialogictutoringsession.
  • Instruments & population
  • Surveystovalidatetheproblem (13 teachers and 38 EFL majors)
  • Video and audio recordingsessions : Corpus collection 3. Field notes 4. Focus groups.
  • Pieces of evidence
  • 38 surveys have been applied to students and 13 teachers. These have three main constructs: Self-regulation, tutoring sessions and autonomy in language learning.
  • With respect to autonomy teachers declared they promoted it in some cases. That they also provide tools to make learners aware of the process of self-regulation. Tutoring sessions are not been carrying out due to time constraints. The role of tutoring has been committed to the British and the U.S. L2 assistants.
  • Pieces of evidence
  • Students’ surveys indicate that their classes are teacher centered.
  • Learners also mentioned that they prefer their teachers providing the knowledge.
  • Some learners declared the need of individual counseling sessions.
  • Some, not many students, self-regulate their learning
  • The majority feel eager to be part of tutoring sessions that help them assume a more challenging role.
  • ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES (note fields and corpus) CAMI (a pseudonym) is a freshman. He is 18 years old. He spent a year in England after leaving high school. Then he decided to join the licensure in TEFL. Her professor has encouraged him to assist his classmates...These facts account for his sense of direction. he takes part in modifying and adapting the goals and content of the program. Cami discusses with the professor the importance of placing grammar as a 'big goal'. He declares that for a teacher the knowledge of grammar is a must. SAMPLE 1
  • 1. Well ... in my opinion I guess is quite similar to writing an essay. You have to take 2.-I don't know how can you say that- the topic sentence could be the big goal you can take 3.I guess… we can handle it in that way, and the small goal may be the order how 4.we write, but I really liked it.
  • EMERGENT CODE Comparison of self learning strategy with academic tasks. SAMPLE 1 Because if you have a big goal and small goal so 5.that we can create a way in order to create a structure between that small goal and 6.big goal that you are creating like a structure so I think is quite nice because that first 7.point would be the small goal and the second point would be the big goal, we can 8.produce… we can find too many things EMERGENT CODE Evaluation of self learning strategy SAMPLE 1 I mean for example my biggest goal is to try to 9. understand the present perfect tenses... EMERGENT CODE Establishment of self learning objective. SAMPLE 1 Professor10. that’s grammar EMERGENT CODE Validation SAMPLE 1 11.Cami: yeah, I know I have a kind of obsession for *the grammar EMERGENT CODE Establishment of self learning objective SAMPLE 1 Professor 12. That’s not bad EMERGENT CODEValidation SAMPLE 1 13.Cami: because I believe that if you want to teach a language you have to know the 14.grammar. I mean if you speak a language *doesn’t mean you can explain it or teach it. EMERGENT CODEBelief about teaching a language SAMPLE 1 15. And its so important to understand all the structures of a language in order to 16. explain it because OK I could understand the thing I have to say, for example to buy or for example if you want to teach, that is important that you know the EMERGENT CODE Beliefaboutteching a foreignlanguage SAMPLE 1 18.structure and also you can use those structures in these times is not always in that 19.time. I don’t have any issue trying to learn the language between the experience, using EMERGENT CODE Beliefabouttheteaching of a foreignlanguage. SAMPLE 1 20.the experience is good. But for me is also important the structure that I am going to 21.teach, we have to understand the structure, we have to know it perfectly. EMERGENT CODE Beliefabouttheteaching of a foreignlanguage. RESEARCH QUESTION How may a dialogic approach promote self-regulation to develop autonomy in EFL learning? Nunan's Model of autonomy. Nunan, D. (1997). Designing and adapting materials to encourage learner autonomy. In P. Benson & P. Voller (Eds.) Autonomy and independence in language learning (pp. 192-203). London: Longman. Triangulated Findings Thanks Imelda Zorro [email protected] REFERENCES
  • Bakhtin, M. Las Ideas Principales de
  • Calero, P. (2011) Aprendizajes sin Límites. Constructivismo. Alfaomega grupo editor, México.
  • Consejo Nacional de Evaluación y de Acreditación de la Educación Superior, estructura, políticas, estrategias, procesos y proyecciones (CONEA). Disponible en
  • Consejo de Europa. Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, As­sessment. Cambridge University Press, 2001.
  • Crystal, D. English as a Global Language. Cambridge UniversityPress, 1998.
  • Estándares Básicos de competencias en lenguas extranjeras (2006) Inglés, Formar en lenguas extranjeras: “El reto”. Lo que necesitamos ber y saber hacer. Ministerio de Educación Nacional de Colombia.
  • Freire, P. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc, 1970
  • REFERENCES Bakhtin, M. Las Ideas Princiapales de Benson, P. (1996). Concepts of autonomy in language learning. En: R. Pembertonet al. (Eds.). Taking control autonomy in language learning, pp.27-34. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. Cotterall, S & Murray, G. (2009). Enhancing metacognitive knowledge: Structure affordances and the self. System, 37, 34-45. Council of Europe (2000). Common European framework of reference for languages: learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress. Dooly M & Masats, Dolors. 2010. Closing the loop between theory and praxis: new models in EFL teaching. Universidad Autónoma de Baracelona. Disponible en REFERENCES
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  • REFERENCES Guglielmino, L. M. (1978). Development of self-directed learning readiness scale (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Georgia, 1977). DissertationAbstracts International, 38, 6467A. Hernández R. et al (2010). Metodología de la investigación. Mc Graw Hill, Perú. Quinta edición. Holec, H. (1981). Autonomy in foreign language learning. Oxford: Pergamon. Horwitz, E. K. (1987). Surveying student beliefs about language learning. En: A. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.). Learner strategies in language learning (pp. 119-129). London: Prentice Hall. Lantolf J. (2000). Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning. Editor. Oxford, Oxford University Press REFERENCES Lantolf J. & Aljaafreh A (1994). Second language learning in the zone of proximal development: A revolutionary experience, international Journal of Educational research, volume 23, number 7, pp 619-632. Hoyos, G. (2012). Ensayos para una teoría discursiva de la educación. Bogotá: Magisterio. Kolb, D. (1984). Experiential Learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Disponible en: REFERENCES Little, D. (1990). Autonomy in language learning. En: I. Gathercole (Ed.). Autonomy in language learning (pp. 7-15). London: CILT. Moncada, J.& Gómez B(2011) Tutoría en competencias para el aprendizaje autónomo. Ediciones La Caja, Mexico D.F. Morrall, A. (2010). AAOU’98 Presentation. Independent Language Learning on the Internet: Possible? Practical? Versión en línea. Disponible en: Murase, F. (2007, octubre). Operationalising the construct of learner autonomy: A preliminary study for developing a new scale measure of language learner autonomy. Proceedings of the Independent Learning Association 2007 Japan Conference: Exploring theory, enhancing practice: Autonomy across the disciplines. Chiba (Japan): Kanda University of International Studies. Nunan, D. (1997). Does learner strategy training make a difference? Modern languages, 24, 123-142. O’Malley, M. & A.U, Chamot. (1990). Language learning strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Oxford, R. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston: NewburyHouse. Page, B. (1992). Letting go-Taking hold. A guide to independent language learningby teachers for teachers.England: CILT, Blackhorn Press. Rashidi, N (2011). “A Model for EFL Materials Development within the Framework of Critical Pedagogy (CP)”. English Language Teaching Vol. 4, No. 2. Disponible en PDF REFERENCES Richard-Amato, P. (2003). Making it Happen. From Interactive to Participatory Language Teaching: Theory and Practice. New York, U.S.A. PearsonEducation Rousseau, J. (1970). Emilio o la educación, Barcelona: Bruguera. Sinclair, B. et al. (2001). Learner autonomy, teacher autonomy: Future directions. London: Longman, British Council. Sheerin, S. 1997. “An exploration of the relationship between self-access and independent learning”, en P. Benson y P. Voller (Eds.) Autonomy and Indeprencdence in Language Learning. Longman. London. REFERENCES Voloshinov, V. (1976). El signo ideológico y la filosofía del lenguaje. Buenos Aires, ediciones Nueva Visión. Viáfara G & Ariza A., Un modelo tutorial entre compañeros como apoyo al aprendizaje autónomo del inglés, Ikala, revista de lenguaje y cultura,. Vol 13. No. 19, 2008 Zorro, I et al (2004). Promotingthe use of englishoutside of class in a collegecourse, en Interlenguajes, reivista de Semiótica y Linguística teórica y aplicada, vol 1.(pp 57-74) Zorro et al (2005). Autonomous Learning and English language proficiency in a B,Ed. In Languages program (pp 109-123). In How. A Colombian Journal for teachers of English. No. 12. ASOCOPI, Bogotá, Colombia. Zorro, I et al (2007). La autonomía y el aprendizaje del inglés como Lengua Extranjera. Editorial Universidad Libre, Bogotá REFERENCES Zorro, I & Baracaldo, D. (2011) Estudio exploratorio sobre aprendizaje autónomo de lenguas extranjeras e implementación de un centro de recursos, en revista Interacción,(pp 170 – 192). Volumen 10. Edit. Alvi Impresores Ltda, Bogotá Lafrancesco, G. (2011) Currículo y Plan de Estudios. Estructura y Planeamiento. Escuela Transformadora. Cooperativa Editorial Magisterio. Richard P, (2003) Make it happen. Longman, Pearson.New York. May, A. (2003) Exam Classes. Resources Books For Teachers. Oxford English.
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