Religion

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Religion. Key Issues Where are religions distributed? Why do religions have different distributions? Why do religions organize space in distinctive patterns? Why do territorial conflicts arise among religious groups?.
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Religion Key Issues Where are religions distributed? Why do religions have different distributions? Why do religions organize space in distinctive patterns? Why do territorial conflicts arise among religious groups?
  • “There has been more evil done in the name of god then ever good”- Coach Mike Blackman; Baptist Preacher
  • The Roots of Religion ever good”- Coach Mike Blackman; Baptist Preacher
  • Animism (Shamanism) -the belief that all objects, animals, and beings are “animated” or possess a spirit and a conscious life. Also called shamanism because of the prominence of a Shaman.
  • Such beliefs are common among hunter-gatherers. These were the first people
  • 10% of Africans follow such traditional ethnic religions.
  • These beliefs are losing ground to Christianity and Islam throughout Africa.
  • Nigerian Shaman Key Issue 1: Where are religions distributed? ever good”- Coach Mike Blackman; Baptist Preacher
  • There are 2 types of religions:
  • Universalizing- religions that attempt to be global and appeal to all people.
  • The 3 main universalizing religions are:
  • CHRISTIANITY- BUDDHISM-ISLAM
  • The other two main universalizing religions other than the above three are:
  • Sikhism 24 million followers, 21 of which are clustered in the Punjab region of India.
  • Bahá’í 7 million followers dispersed across the globe.
  • CHRISTIANITY- 2 billion followers in N. and S. America, Europe, Australia, and some Asian and African countries.
  • 50% Roman Catholic,
  • 25% Protestant,
  • 10% Eastern Orthodox
  • 15% miscellaneous.
  • About 90% of the Western Hemisphere is Christian.
  • 95% Roman Catholic in Latin American
  • 50% Protestant in the U.S.
  • 2 billion adherents make it most practiced in the world. Europe, Australia, and some Asian and African countries.
  • Originated in Bethlehem (8-4 BC) and Jerusalem (AD 30) with Jesus Christ.
  • Spread by missionaries and the Roman Empire (Constantine A.D. 313).
  • (Apostle Paul)
  • Christianity Christianity in the U.S. Europe, Australia, and some Asian and African countries.
  • ISLAM- 1.3 billion followers in Middle East, Indonesia, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh.
  • Core of beliefs is based on the 5 pillars of faith:
  • There is no god worthy of worship other than the one God, and Muhammad is the messenger of God.
  • A Muslim must pray 5 times daily facing the city of Mecca.
  • A Muslim gives generously to charity, as an act of purification and growth.
  • A Muslim fasts during the month of Ramadan, as an act of self-purification.
  • If physically and financially able, a Muslim makes a pilgrimage to Mecca.
  • The two main branches of Islam are Sunni (83%) and Shiite (16%).
  • 1 billion + adherents Pakistan, India, Bangladesh.
  • Originated in Saudi Arabia (Mecca and Medina) around AD 600.
  • Spread originally by Muslim armies to N. Africa, and the Near East.
  • Sunni (83%) - throughout the Muslim world.
  • Shiite - Iran (40%), Pakistan (15%), Iraq (10%)
  • Islam Prophet: Pakistan, India, Bangladesh. Muhammad Holy Text: Koran Reading the Koran, Brunei
  • Islamic Calender
  • Begins in AD 622 when Muhammad was commanded to Mecca from Medina (Hijra).
  • Lunar calendar makes Ramadan move through the seasons (30 year cycle - 19 years with 354 days and 11 with 355).
  • Hajj Pakistan, India, Bangladesh. The 14x46 displays are located on I-26 at mile-marker 125 and US 301N in Orangeburg
  • BUDDHISM- 365 million followers in China and S.E. Asia mainly.
  • Based on the 4 Noble Truths:
  • All living beings must endure suffering.
  • Suffering, which is caused by a desire to live, leads to reincarnation.
  • The goal of all existence is to escape from suffering and the endless cycle of reincarnation into Nirvana (a state of complete redemption), which is achieved through mental and moral self-purification.
  • Nirvana is attained through an Eightfold Path that stresses rightness of belief, resolve, speech, action, livelihood, effort, thought, and meditation.
  • The branches of Buddhism are Mahayana (56%), Theravada (38%), and Tantrayana (6%).
  • 300 million + adherents primarily in China and S.E. Asia mainly.
  • Originated near modern Nepal around 530 BC by prince Siddhartha Guatama.
  • Cool story on how this happens
  • Spread originally in India and Sri Lanka by Magadhan Empire (250 BC).
  • Widely accepted because of the Caste System practiced in India
  • Indian traders brought it to China in 1st century AD.
  • By 6th century it had lost its hold on India, but was now in Korea and Japan.
  • Buddhism Karma - your past bad or good actions determine your progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God. Theravada - the older, more severe form which requires the renouncing of all worldly goods and desires. Buddha is a teacher Mahayana - focuses on Buddha’s teachings and compassion. Buddha is a god
  • The second type religion progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.
  • Ethnic- religion that primarily appeals to one group of people living in one place. More closely tied to the physical geography of a particular region, especially with agriculture.
  • Animism progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.
  • ANIMISM- traditional African religions that focus on the animate qualities of normally considered inanimate objects, like stones, water, etc.
  • Animism is a sort of all-encompassing term rather than a specific religion
  • Humankind has not woven the web of life. We are but one thread within it. Whatever we do to the web, we do to ourselves. All things are bound together. All things connect.~ Chief Seattle Bear Dance Hinduism progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.
  • HINDU- the world’s 3rd largest religion with 820 million adherents. 97% live in India
  • 900 million + adherents, primarily in India (4th largest)
  • Hinduism is an ancient term for the complex and diverse set of religious beliefs practiced around the Indus River.
  • The four sacred texts are ancient hymns called the progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.Vedas, but few Hindus historically could read.
  • Coastlines and river banks most sacred sites.
  • Many, many festivals, often surrounding harvest or spring or the birth of Gods.
  • Ganges River, Varanasi, India progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God. In the Hindu religion, progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.Brahman is the eternal, unchanging, infinite, immanent, and transcendent reality which is the Divine Ground of all matter, energy, time, space, and being. Brahman
  • Brahman is the divine creator but is manifested in literally hundreds of gods, of which Brahma, Shiva, and Vishnu are most common.
  • The first principle of Indian thought, therefore, is that the ultimate reality is beyond description. It is something that can be experienced only by bringing the mind to a stop; and once experienced, it cannot be described to anyone in terms of the forms of this world. - Joseph Campbell Another important concept is that Hinduism believes in the omnipresence of the Supreme God in every individual. There is no "fall." Man is not cut off from the divine. He requires only to bring the spontaneous activity of his mind to a state of stillness and he will experience that divine principle within him.  - Joseph Campbell Reincarnation progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God. – the soul is immortal but the body endlessly cycles to higher or lower levels of existence. Yoga – the practices or tools used to break from habits of past lives. Includes various meditations and physical practices. Hindu Beliefs and Practice
  • The Purusharthas or The Four Aims of Human Life:
  • Dharma (righteousness)
  • Artha (wealth)
  • Kama (desire)
  • Moksha (salvation or liberation) – release from the endless cycles.
  • The Trinity of Brahman progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God. Brahma (The Creator) - depicted with four faces each continually reciting one of the Vedas. The force of creation and birth. Shiva (The Destroyer) - Shakti or power; the dissolving force in life; centrifugal force; entropy. Vishnu (The Preserver) - peace; balance; Sustainer of life. A hint of monotheism- How does Christianity stack up? Judaism progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.
  • JUDAISM- 6 million followers in U.S., 4 million in Israel, 2 million in Russia, 2 million elsewhere. First religion to support monotheism- the belief in only 1 god, as opposed to polytheism- the belief in many gods.
  • 14 million adherents
  • Monotheistic
  • Pentateuch
  • First five books of the Old Testament
  • Sects
  • Orthodox, Conservative, Reform
  • Israel
  • Homeland for Jewish people
  • Created 1948
  • Conflict between Israel and Palestine
  • The Geography of Religion progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God. * Ethnic Religions versus Universalizing Religions (proselytic) * Polytheism versus Monotheism Other Religions progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.
  • Eastern Religions
  • Confucianism (China)
  • Taoism (China)
  • Shinto (Japan)
  • CONFUCIANISM- mainly in China, stresses ethical lifestyles; More of a philosophy then a religion
  • TAOISM- mainly in China also, followers seek the dao (tao) meaning the way or path.
  • SHINTO- mainly in Japan, before WWII was the state religion and emperor was regarded as divine.
  • 14th Century Chinese painting depicting Lao-tze and Confucius protecting Sakayumi, the future Buddha.
  • Branch- a large fundamental division within a religion. progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.
  • Denomination- a division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body.
  • Sect- a relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination.
  • Pilgrimage- a sacred religious journey.
  • How do Universalizing and Ethnic Religions Differ? progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.
  • Ethnic
  • Has meaning in particular place only.
  • Unknown source.
  • Content focused on place and landscape of origin.
  • Followers highly clustered.
  • Holidays based on local climate and agricultural practice.
  • Universalizing
  • Appeal to people everywhere
  • Individual founder (prophet)
  • Message diffused widely (missionaries)
  • Followers distributed widely.
  • Holidays based on events in founder’s life.
  • Which type religion has more bearing on the global landscape? How does ethnic religions try and hold their identity Give three examples of positive influences and three negative How is this either unsuccessful or successful in today’s culture Key Issue 2: Why do religions have different distributions? landscape?
  • As a general rule, universalizing religions have origins based on a specific individual’s life in the past, ethnic religions typically have either no origin or an unclear one at best.
  • Some religious origins:
  • Christianity- based on the life of Jesus
  • Islam-trace lineage back through Abraham’s other son Ishmael; based on the life of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam.
  • Buddhism- based on the life of Siddhartha Gautama, who later became Buddha (the enlightened one)
  • Sikhism- founded by Guru Nanak about 500 years ago.
  • Hindu- did not originate with a specific founder. Beginnings of Hindu date back to before recorded history. It is the oldest living religion
  • Missionaries- individuals who help to transmit a universalizing religion through relocation diffusion.
  • Pagan- followers of polytheistic religions in ancient times.
  • Ghetto- city slum designated for Jew habitation.
  • Cosmogony- creation story.
  • Solstice- day when sun is at highest or lowest point in the sky.
  • Diffusion of Religions universalizing religion through relocation diffusion.
  • Christianity spread mainly through the work of missionaries, and also by some conquest and colonization.
  • Islam spread mainly through conquest.
  • Buddhism spread mainly through missionaries and trade merchants.
  • Buddhism and Islam are the universalizing religions that place the most emphasis on identifying shrines/holy places.
  • In universalizing religions, the holy places are generally locations at which memorable events happened in the founder’s life
  • Mecca is in Islam because it is Muhammad’s birthplace.
  • Holy places in ethnic religions are often physical features that are closely tied to the religion.
  • Hindu one of the most important rituals is the bathing of oneself in the Ganges River.
  • Diffusion of Christianity universalizing religion through relocation diffusion. Diffusion of Islam universalizing religion through relocation diffusion. Islam is considered the fastest growing religion in America. Only a small part of this growth is from black Muslims and the Nation of Islam. Diffusion of Buddhism universalizing religion through relocation diffusion.
  • Ethnic religions rarely diffuse, and when they do, it is to a small extent.
  • universalizing religions diffuse mainly at the expense of the smaller ethnic religions, and often a semi-hybrid religion will result with concepts from both the ethnic religion and the universalizing religion intertwined.
  • Judaism is an exception in that it has diffused widely throughout the years, mainly because its people have had to flee persecution from many areas in the world.
  • Cosmogony and calendars also differ betwixt universalizing religions and ethnic religions.
  • Ethnic religious creation stories tend to deal with the physical environment and natural events
  • Ethnic religions typically organize their calendars around the seasons, other natural events, or the physical geography.
  • universalizing religion stories often attempt to explain the mystical.
  • Universalizing religions’ main purpose in calendars is to commemorate events in the founder’s life, thus the seasons or weather are not central to the structure.
  • Syncretism - religions and ethnic religions. the mixing of two or more religions that creates unique rituals, artwork, and beliefs.
  • Examples include syncretism of Christianity and indigenous beliefs in the Americas, Africa, and Asia.
  • Caribbean Voodoo (Haiti, Louisiana)
  • Christianity in Indigenous Latin American
  • Voodoo Dolls, Haiti Shrine, Bangalore, India Syncretism - religions and ethnic religions. the mixing of two or more religions that creates unique rituals, artwork, and beliefs. Key Issue 3: Why do religions organize space in distinctive patterns?
  • The distribution of religious elements on the landscape reflects the importance of religion in people’s values.
  • In Christianity, the landscape is dominated by a high density of churches. They are critical because of the emphasis placed on regularly attending worship.
  • In Islam, mosques are the places for general assembly. They are not viewed as a sanctified place but rather a convening point for the community. A mosque normally has a central courtyard surrounded by classrooms.
  • In Hinduism, temples are built within the home or individual community. They have a central room to house a spirit, with rooms for rituals, and outer purifying pools. In both Buddhism and Shinto, pagodas are the common architecture. They are typically built to enshrine sacred religious artifacts.
  • In Bahá’í, the church officials decided to open seven Houses of Worship on multiple continents to stress the universality of their religion.
  • Religion and Environment patterns?
  • Burial practices
  • Judeo-Christians bury.
  • Hindus and Buddhists cremate.
  • Relationship with nature
  • Sacred Spaces
  • Sacred architecture
  • Role of religion in domination of earth?
  • The disposing of the dead differs from religion to religion. Some prefer to bury while others choose to cremate.
  • Religion often influences the place-names of certain regions.
  • Ex. The vast amount of places named for saints in predominantly Roman Catholic Quebec.
  • Hierarchical religion- well-defined geographic structure with a high degree of organization. Ex. The Roman Catholic Church
  • Diocese- the basic geographic unit of the R.C.C.
  • Autonomous religions- self-sufficient religions with little organization. Ex. Islam prefers to unify by faith rather than specific boundaries.
  • Most ethnic religions are autonomous. Protestant faiths vary.
  • Key Issue 4: Why do territorial conflicts arise among religious groups?
  • RELIGION IS ARGUABLY THE MOST VOLITALE OF ALL HUMAN RELATIONS AND THE SOURCE OF MOST VIOLENCE THROUGHOUT HISTORY.
  • Fundamentalism- the literal interpretation and strict intense adherence to one’s religious principles.
  • Fundamentalists try to return society to its religious ways. The most obvious example is the Taliban in Afghanistan.
  • Caste- the class or distinct hereditary order into which a Hindu was assigned according to religious law.
  • Religion is nearly always suppressed in communist countries.
  • Leaders believe that religion has a tendency to upset stability and therefore ban it altogether, though often they just concrete the people’s religious adherence instead of destroying it.
  • Other times, when people of different religions live in close proximity to one another, engage in contact often, or share interests in a particular location, especially violent interaction will occur.
  • Ex. The Middle East. Jews, Christians, and Muslims have fought for over 2,000 years to control the same small strip of land in the East Mediterranean.
  • Historically the Crusades between Christians and Muslims played out as each fought to control the Holy Lands.
  • Hostilities continue in the modern era over these same lands.
  • Social Impact of Religion
  • Gender roles
  • Women’s rights
  • Diet
  • Vegetarians
  • Pork, beef
  • Alcohol
  • Ethics and morals
  • Schools and institutions
  • World Distribution of Hogs Economic Impact
  • Banking and lending- Biblical prohibition against usury (lending at interest). Still followed in Muslim world (only fees are charged).
  • Protestantism and capitalism – Max Weber and the Protestant Ethic; argues that individualism of Protestantism leads to acquisitiveness.
  • Catholic Church and capitalism – Pope John Paul II praised free markets but with the caution that they cannot meet all needs and salaries must be “just.”
  • Confucianism versus individualism- Confucius elevated the status of noble bureaucrats and commitment to societal good. This allows Asian nations to attract top talent to government jobs. Also, diligence with regard to savings and spending may be a consequence of Confucian ideas.
  • The controversy in Ireland occurred when predominantly Catholic South Ireland wished to secede from predominantly Protestant Great Britain.
  • However, the northernmost six counties of Ireland are overwhelmingly Protestant and wished to remain part of the U.K.
  • When the split occurred a small number of Roman Catholics in both N. Ireland and the Republic of Ireland joined the Irish Republican Army (IRA), a militant organization devoted to achieving Irish unity by whatever means necessary.
  • A Protestant organization has formed in return.
  • Violence continues as extremists from both sides disrupt the lives of
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