Science and Politics in the United States

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Science and Politics in the United States. Science and Politics in the United States. Social Dimensions of Science. Minneapolis Star Tribune Wednesday Oct. 25. Sen. Cruz reads 'Green Eggs and Ham' Talk of genetically modified food labeling at General Mills
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Science and Politics in the United States Science and Politics in the United States Social Dimensions of Science Minneapolis Star Tribune Wednesday Oct. 25
  • Sen. Cruz reads 'Green Eggs and Ham'
  • Talk of genetically modified food labeling at General Mills
  • Doubt among climate change skeptics challenges definition of 'virtually certain‘
  • List of 2013 Macarthur Foundation 'Genius Grant' winners
  • Science and Politics
  • It’s a matter of
  • What should be the role and responsibility of the federal government?
  • What do we want/need?
  • How should we produce what we want/need?
  • How should we spend federal money?
  • How should we raise federal money?
  • Scientific “Controversies”
  • Climate Change
  • Evolution
  • Smoking
  • Stem Cell Research
  • Genetics – GMOs, gene therapy
  • Gun control
  • Privacy
  • Patent infringements
  • Scientific “Controversies”What is the Nature of the Controversy?
  • Climate Change
  • Evolution
  • Smoking
  • Stem Cell Research
  • Genetics – GMOs, gene therapy
  • Gun control
  • Privacy
  • Patent infringements
  • Obama’s Carbon Rules Seen as New Battleground for EPA(Bloomberg.com Sept. 20, 2013)
  • “These carbon pollution standards are flexible and achievable,” EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy said in remarks at the National Press Club in Washington. “They pave a path forward for the next generation of power plants”
  • Because of low natural-gas prices and the boom in installations of wind and solar power, no new coal plants will be built with or without this rule over the next eight years, according to the EPA. As a result, the agency forecasts that this plan will result in “negligible” costs, benefits, changes in carbon-dioxide emissions and overall economic impacts over that period
  • “It’s a new day,” said Vicki Arroyo, director of the climate program at Georgetown University
  • Obama’s Carbon Rules Seen as New Battleground for EPA
  • Coal producers, some utilities, and Republicans in Congress all said that the standard announced today would effectively outlaw construction of new coal-fired power plants, raise prices for electricity and cost jobs
  • “We believe that coal plants with near-zero greenhouse gas emissions will be achievable in time, but such technology is simply not available today,” Deck Slone, Arch’s director of public policy, said in a statement
  • Stock prices of coal producers fell on the news
  • “These stringent standards will actually discourage investment and the development of innovative new technologies.” “The consequences will be more job losses and a weaker economy.” House Energy and Commerce Committee Chairman 
  • Obama’s Carbon Rules Seen as New Battleground for EPA
  • Coal producers, some utilities, and Republicans in Congress all said that the standard announced today would effectively outlaw construction of new coal-fired power plants, raise prices for electricity and cost jobs
  • “We believe that coal plants with near-zero greenhouse gas emissions will be achievable in time, but such technology is simply not available today,” Deck Slone, Arch’s director of public policy, said in a statement
  • Stock prices of coal producers fell on the news
  • “These stringent standards will actually discourage investment and the development of innovative new technologies.” “The consequences will be more job losses and a weaker economy.” House Energy and Commerce Committee Chairman Fred Upton, a Michigan Republican
  • A Supreme Court Opinion
  • Massachusetts et al v Environmental Protection Agency et al (2007)
  • US Supreme Court stated that the EPA had the authority to regulate carbon dioxide
  • “We must ask ourselves as a nation, how do we want this government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science?’ Rep Nick Dahall WV Oversight Hearing on “Endangered Species Act Implementation: Science or Politics?” May 9, 2007
  • Climate Change Research and Scientific Integrity (Hearing before the House Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation Feb 7, 2007)
  • A Rational Discussion of Climate Change: the Science, the Evidence, the Response (Hearing before the House Subcommittee on Energy and Environment Committee on Science and Technology Nov. 17, 2010)
  • Public Acceptance of Evolution (Science Aug.11 2006)
  • Exploring the Creation/Evolution Controversy (The TalkOrigins Archives)
  • Evolution (Public Broadcasting Service)
  • Science Policy of the United States (Wikipedia)
  • Clearly a clash between government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science?
  • Tangible – empirical (“scientific”) information
  • Intangible beliefs, morality, values, opinions ….
  • The system of government in the United States invites such clashes
  • United State Constitution government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science? describes
  • Power of the federal government – welfare, commerce, safety clauses
  • Power of the state government
  • Rights of individuals – Bill of Rights
  • As determined by the United States Supreme Court
  • Restrictions on Individual Rights government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science?
  • Every man, when he enters into a society gives up part of his natural liberty, as the price of so valuable a purchase  … obliges himself to conform to those laws which the community has thought proper to establish (William  Blackstone. Commentaries of the Law of England. A Facsimile of the First Edition of 1765-1769 (1979) vol. 1 p. 121)
  • Restrictions on Individual Rights government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science?
  • Every man, when he enters into a society gives up part of his natural liberty, as the price of so valuable a purchase  … obliges himself to conform to those laws which the community has thought proper to establish (William  Blackstone. Commentaries of the Law of England. A Facsimile of the First Edition of 1765-1769 (1979) vol. 1 p. 121)
  • Our legal problem arises at the point where capitalist economy and activist state collide. No longer a night-watchman, the state surveys the outcome of market processes and find them wanting. Armed with a prodigious array of legal tools, it sets about improving upon the invisible hand - taxing here, subsidizing there, regulating everywhere. The results of all this motion may well be something that clearly redounds to the public good - a cleaner environment, a safer workplace, a decent home. Nonetheless, these welfare gains can rarely be purchased without social cost - though many gain, some will lose as a result of the new government initiative (Bruce A. Ackerman Private Property and the Constitution, 1977 p.1) 
  • Public Policy government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science?
  • Congress Legislative Mandate Agency Legislation Courts Regulation LAW – PUBLIC POLICY
  • Public Policy government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science?
  • Congress Legislative Mandate Model – heuristic/pedagogical device Agency Legislation Courts Regulation LAW – PUBLIC POLICY
  • Public Policy government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science?
  • Congress Legislative Mandate
  • Model – heuristic/pedagogical device
  • Created for a purpose
  • Agency Legislation Courts Regulation LAW – PUBLIC POLICY
  • Public Policy government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science?
  • Congress Legislative Mandate
  • Model – heuristic/pedagogicaldevice
  • Created for a purpose
  • Reflect a particular perspective on reality
  • Agency Legislation Courts Regulation LAW – PUBLIC POLICY
  • Public Policy government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science?
  • Congress Legislative Mandate
  • Model – heuristic/pedagogicaldevice
  • Created for a purpose
  • Reflect a particular perspective on reality
  • Includes and excludes some characteristics of reality
  • Agency Legislation Courts Regulation LAW – PUBLIC POLICY
  • Public Policy government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science?
  • Congress Legislative Mandate
  • Model – heuristic/pedagogical device
  • Created for a purpose
  • Reflect a particular perspective on reality
  • Includes and excludes some characteristics of reality
  • May or may not be useful for others
  • Agency Legislation Courts Regulation LAW – PUBLIC POLICY Disagreement over the Powers of the Various Branches government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science?(Also disagreement between Federal and State Governments) Science and government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science?Congress
  • Congress enacts legislation that
  • defines and establishes broad social goals
  • outlines what behavior are needed to achieve those goals
  • delegate authority necessary to produce that behavior – often change behavior
  • appropriates revenue
  • In accordance with the U.S. Constitution as defined by the Supreme Court
  • U.S. Statutes at Large – every Congress session
  • How Our Laws are Made
  • United States Code – cumulative - shows the broad reach of the federal government
  • United States Code government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science?
  • 21 USC Food and Drugs
  • 42 USC The Public Health and Welfare
  • 51 USC National and Commercial Space Programs
  • Legislative Agencies government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science?
  • General Accountability Office an independent, nonpartisan agency that works for Congress. Often called the "congressional watchdog," GAO investigates how the federal government spends taxpayer dollars
  • Congressional Research Office (Library of Congress) assists members of Congress and Congressional committees during the legislative process – from the early considerations that precede bill drafting, through committee hearings and floor debate, to the oversight of enacted laws and various agency activities
  • American Law
  • Domestic Social Policy
  • Foreign Affairs, Defense and Trade
  • Government and Finance
  • Resources, Science and Industryhttp://cnie.org/NLE/CRS/
  • Public Policy government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science?
  • Congress Legislative Mandate Agency Legislation Courts Regulation LAW – PUBLIC POLICY Executive Agencies government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science?
  • Operate under a legislative mandate
  • promulgate rules that change behavior
  • Presidential “control”
  • directives
  • appointments
  • Federal Register – every day
  • Code of Federal Regulations – annually
  • Code of Federal Regulations government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science?
  • 21 CFR Food and Drugs
  • 40 CFR Protection of the Environment
  • 42 CFR Public Health
  • Science and the Judicial Branch government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science?
  • The courts examine claims by individuals, organizations, even governments, that specific legislation or specific regulations violates their state or federal constitutional rights and cause some harm that necessitates compensation
  • Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 447 U.S. 303 (1980)
  • Massachusetts et al v Environmental Protection Agency et al (2007)
  • Federal Court Decisions Involving Evolution and the First Amendment
  • Government's Greatest Achievements of the Past Half Century government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science? (Brookings Institution Dec. 2000)
  • Name a significant domestic or foreign problem over the past half century and the federal government made some effort to solve it, sometimes through massive new programs such as Medicare and Apollo, other times through a string of smaller initiatives to address enduring problems such as disease and poverty
  • Federal Funding of Scientific Research – A Timeline
  • Government's Greatest Achievements of the Past Half Century government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science? (Brookings Institution Dec. 2000)
  • Name a significant domestic or foreign problem over the past half century and the federal government made some effort to solve it, sometimes through massive new programs such as Medicare and Apollo, other times through a string of smaller initiatives to address enduring problems such as disease and poverty
  • Federal Funding of Scientific Research – A Timeline
  • One take-home point
  • Very little happens in the United States without “help” from the federal government
  • Research government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science?
  • Basic research, fundamental research, sometimes pure research
  • research carried out to increase understanding of fundamental principles
  • results may have no direct or immediate commercial benefits
  • arising out of the intellectual curiosity of an individual – all research is personal
  • Research government to run the Endangered Species Program—entangled in politics, or enlightened by science?
  • Basic research, fundamental research, sometimes pure research
  • research carried out to increase understanding of fundamental principles
  • results may have no direct or immediate commercial benefits
  • arising out of the intellectual curiosity of an individual – all research is personal
  • Applied research
  • research that uses some of the basic science theories, knowledge, methods, and results
  • for specific, often commercial, purposes
  • Where is the line between “pure” and “applied” research?
  • Manhattan project – Atom bomb (The Nuclear Weapon Archive)
  • Nuclear weapons (United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs)
  • Civilian use of nuclear energy
  • Nuclear electricity generation (World Nuclear Association)
  • Nuclear medicine and molecular imaging (Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging)
  • Uranium mining (US Environmental Protection Agency)
  • Nuclear wastes (US Nuclear Regulator Agency)
  • Where is the line between “pure” and “applied” research?
  • Biotechnology……………………………………….Genetically modified organisms
  • Should science be stopped? The case of recombinant DNA research(National Affairs, 1983)
  • Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism (National Academies Press, 2004)
  • Ethics guide. Biotechnology (BBC, n.d.)
  • Molecular biology, biophysics ------------------------------ Nanotechnology
  • Nanotechnology Journal
  • Nano.gov (National Technology Initiative)
  • The dangers of nanotechnology (PBS. 2011)
  • Research Funding research?
  • Most research funding comes from two major sources
  • Corporations
  • through their R&D departments
  • by sponsoring individuals – e.g. university personnel
  • Research Funding research?
  • Most research funding comes from two major sources
  • Corporations
  • through their R&D departments – in-house research
  • by sponsoring individuals – e.g. university personnel - contracts
  • Governments
  • through the work of the mission agencies – in-house research
  • by sponsoring
  • corporate research (in a variety of ways) – loans, tax breaks ….
  • individuals – e.g. university personnel – often through grants
  • 1965 >60% R & D funding from federal government research?
  • 2006 65% funded by corporations
  • Corporate Research research?
  • BP
  • Ford
  • Medtronic
  • Phizer
  • General Mills
  • 3M
  • Thomson Reuters
  • The Dow Chemical Company
  • Corporate-Sponsored Research at Universities research?
  • Corporate Sponsored Research and Development at Universities in the United States (Finnegan, Henderson, Farabow, Garrett & Dunner, LLP 2013)
  • Universities and Corporate-Sponsored Research (Pharmalot)
  • Corporate-sponsored Research at Penn State (PSU)
  • CSE research leads to startup company that aims to improve water quality(UMN)
  • As drug industry’s influence over research grows, so does the potential for bias (Washington Post Nov. 24 2012)
  • Philanthropic Organizations research?
  • Some research is carried out and funded by charitable foundations, especially in relation to developing cures for diseases such as cancer, malaria, and AIDS
  • Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
  • The Pew Charitable Trusts
  • Charles G Koch Charitable Foundations
  • McKnight Foundation
  • Community Giving - 3M
  • Spreading the Wealth (Wall Street Journal, December 2010)
  • Nonprofit Organizations research?
  • Social Science Research Council an independent, nonprofit international organization founded in 1923
  • The American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • Rand Corporation a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decision-making through research and analysis - focusing on the issues that matter most such as health, education, national security, international affairs, law and business, and the environment 
  • Natural Resources Defense Council the nation's most effective environmental action group, combining the grassroots power of 1.3 million members and online activists with the courtroom clout and expertise of more than 350 lawyers, scientists and other professionals
  • Federal Government research? Executive agencies, all of which have missions – legislative mandates – and are funded by Congress
  • Research agendas
  • Rule-making power
  • Power in emergencies Research carried out – USA Spending
  • By employees of specific agencies
  • By contracts between agencies and various corporations and individuals
  • By grants to individuals in specific types organizations – universities
  • Practical Duckweed: US Government and Corporate Sponsored Research
  • Federal Grants, Government Grants and Loans by Federal Agency
  • Award of financial assistance from a Federal agency authorized by Congress to carry out a public purpose
  • Twenty-six Federal agencies annually offer over 1,000 grant programs
  • The Reason Federal Agencies Fund Research Agency
  • Carry out research as they fulfill their mission and expend the funds appropriated to them by Congress
  • Funds research by individuals that support that mission
  • Executive agencies Agency(Library of Congress)
  • Department of Agriculture
  • Food and Nutrition Service – food safety
  • Forest Service – fire behavior
  • Department of Commerce
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Department of Energy
  • Department of Energy, Office of Science - lead federal agency supporting fundamental scientific research for energy and the Nation’s largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences
  • Department of Health and Human Services
  • Food and Drug Administration
  • 2 Years Later: the Impact of the Recovery Act
  • Executive agencies Agency(Library of Congress)
  • Department of the Interior
  • Deepwater Horizon Response & Restoration. In response to the Deepwater Horizon explosion and resulting oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, the Obama Administration launched the
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