Steinberg et al (2008)-Sphaerodactylus vincenti.pdf

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853.1 REPTILIA: SQUAMATA: SPHAERODACTYLIDAE Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Steinberg, D.S., J.L. Hite, R. Powell, and R.W. Henderson. 2008. Sphaerodactylus vincenti. Sphaerodactylus vincenti Sphaerodactylus vincenti Boulenger Windward Islands Dwarf Gecko Sphaerodactylus vincenti Boulenger 1891:354. Typelocality, “St. Vincent.” Syntypes, British Museum of Natural History (BMNH) 1946.8.26.38–48; BMNH 1946.8.26.38–39 are listed as males, whereas 1946.8.26.40–48 are recorded as ma
  Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Steinberg, D.S., J.L. Hite, R. Powell, and R.W. Hen-derson. 2008. Sphaerodactylus vincenti  . Sphaerodactylus vincenti  BoulengerWindward Islands Dwarf Gecko Sphaerodactylus vincenti  Boulenger 1891:354. Type-locality, “St. Vincent.” Syntypes, British Museumof Natural History (BMNH) 1946.8.26.38–48;BMNH 1946.8.26.38–39 are listed as males,whereas 1946.8.26.40–48 are recorded as male,female, and “half-grown” (C. McCarthy, BMNH, in litt. , 3.I.2007), collected by H.H. Smith, date ofcollection unknown (not examined by authors).See Comment . ã CONTENT . The S. vincenti  complex includes ninecurrently recognized subspecies (Schwartz 1964): S.v. vincenti, S. v. adamas, S. v. diamesus, S. v. festus,S. v. josephinae, S. v. monilifer, S. v. pheristus, S. v.psamminus  , and S. v. ronaldi  . ã DEFINITION . Sphaerodactylus vincenti  is a rela-tively large dwarf gecko, with a maximum SVLof 40mm in males and females. Keeled dorsal scales aresmall, number 29–64 from axilla to groin, and haveboth knoblike and hair-bearing scale organs. Amid-dorsal area of smaller scales is present. Ventralscales range from smooth and cycloid to keeled andacute and number 26–38 from axilla to groin. Scalerows at midbody number 44–75. Dorsal caudalscales are keeled, flat, imbricate, and acute. Sub-caudals are cycloid, imbricate, and with an enlargedmidventral row. Snout scales are flat, keeled, and jux-taposed. One postnasal, 0–3 internasals, and 2–4upper labials to mid-eye are present. Gular scales arestrong to weakly keeled, and chest scales are smoothor keeled. Escutcheons are 3–11 scales long and18–36 scales wide (Schwartz and Henderson 1991).Sexual dichromatism is absent in most populations.Ground color of the head is light to medium brown oryellow. Dorsal ground color ranges from dirty yellowto some shade of brown or grayish-brown, oftenspeckled with darker brown. Limbs may be marbledwith dark brown. The venter is pale purplish or gray-ish pink, light to medium brown, or gray. Chin andthroat are uniform light brown or deep yellow to deeporange, sometimes with gray or brown bars or ver-miculations. The underside of the tail is light brown todull orange or rosy orange. The iris is brown, blue,blue-gray, or bluish green. The dorsum may be uni-formly colored, but many individuals in most popula-tions exhibit some pattern elements, which are ex-tremely variable, but usually include a pair of black-edged white ocelli or a nuchal bar or a widely openedwhite or light brown V (most evident in juveniles).Light suprapostorbital lines often are present, joiningin the region of the ocelli (if present) and, in somecases, extending onto the trunk. Fused spots in thepelvic region may form a prominent white or gray V(Schwartz and Henderson 1991). See subspecific definitions for details of variation in individual popula-tions. ã DIAGNOSIS . Sphaerodactylus vincenti  is best dis-tinguished from its presumed closest relative andneighbor to the south ( S. kirbyi  ) by having muchsmaller scales (sum of lateral and middorsal scales in S. kirbyi  is 23–28, whereas S. vincenti  has 31–36); S.kirbyi  also lacks the keeled gulars, rich head col-oration, and blue-green iris of S. vincenti  . Sphaerodactylus vincenti  can be distinguished(Schwartz and Henderson 1985) from sympatricLesser Antillean congeners by smooth, rounded ven-trals and laterally expanded median subcaudals ( S.microlepis  has keeled, acute ventrals and mediansubcaudals are not expanded; Schwartz 1965) andby ocelli (if present) and lack of a sharply contrastinghead color and pattern or dorsal lineate pattern (male S. fantasticus  have a sharply demarcated deep bluehead with scattered light blue spots and femalesalmost always have a V on the head that continuesas stripes onto the body; Malhotra and Thorpe 1999). ã DESCRIPTIONS . Detailed descriptions of thespecies, other than the srcinal of Boulenger (1891),are in Barbour (1921), King (1962), Lazell (1994),Malhotra and Thorpe (1999), Schwartz 1965, andSchwartz and Henderson (1991). ã ILLUSTRATIONS . Malhotra and Thorpe (1999),de Silva and Wilson (2006), Powell (2007), and Mar-cum et al. (in press) included color photographs. Tre-glia (2006) included a black-and-white photograph.Line drawings are in Barbour (1921), King (1962),Lazell (1994), and Schwartz (1964, 1965). ã DISTRIBUTION . Sphaerodactylus vincenti  isknown to occur on the St. Lucia, Dominica, Martin-ique, and St. Vincent island banks. The species islocally abundant on St. Vincent (Steinberg et al.2007), sporadic on Martinique, and rarely encoun-tered on Dominica and St. Lucia (Schwartz 1965).These lizards are found in leaf litter, under rocks androtten logs, and in bromeliads (Schwartz and Hen- REPTILIA: SQUAMATA: SPHAERODACTYLIDAE Sphaerodactylus vincenti  853.1 F IGURE 1. Adult male (top) and female Sphaerodactylus vin-centi vincenti  from Kingstown,St.George’s Parish,St.Vincent.Photographs by Robert Powell.  derson, 1991), but appear to be restricted to relative-ly mesic situations (Steinberg et al. 2007). ã FOSSILRECORD . None. ã PERTINENT LITERATURE . Overviews includeSchwartz and Henderson (1991). Additional literaturepertaining to this species is arranged by topic: behav-ior (Marcum et al. in press; S. v. vincenti  on St. Vin-cent); comparisons (with S. kirbyi  Hite et al. 2007,Lazell 1994); diet (Steinberg et al. 2007, S. v. vincen- ti  on St. Vincent); population densities (Leclair andProvencher 1988, S. v. psammius  on Martinique;Steinberg et al. 2007, S. v. vincenti  on St. Vincent), systematics (Hass 1996), and water loss rates (Le-clair 1978, S. v. psammius  on Martinique; Steinberget al. 2007, S. v. vincenti  on St. Vincent).The species is included in additional general works,checklists, guides, and keys (some may include briefdescriptions) by Barbour (1914, 1930, 1935, 1937),Breuil (2002), Censky and Kaiser (1999), Corke(1987), Frank and Ramus (1995), Henderson andPowell (1999), Kluge (1991, 1995, 2001), Lorvelec etal. (2007), MacLean et al. (1977), Malhotra and Thor-pe (1999), Mallery et al. (2007), Powell and Hender-son (2007), Powell et al. (1996), Ricklefs and Lovette1999, Schwartz (1973), Schwartz and Henderson(1985, 1988, 1991), Schwartz and Thomas (1975),Sokolov (1988), Underwood (1962), Wermuth (1965),and Williams (1999). ã ETYMOLOGY . The specific epithet, vincenti  , re-fers to the island of St. Vincent, the type-locality of thespecies. The srcins of the subspecific names are: adamas  presumably is from the Greek, meaning ‘dia-mond,’probably a reference to the type-locality of thistaxon; diamesus  presumably is from the Greek diamesou , meaning ‘between,’probably in reference tothe fact that this subspecies is found on St. Lucia,between the Martinique populations to the north andthe nominate subspecies to the south; festus  is fromthe Latin, meaning ‘joyful,’in reference to the fact thatthe holotype was collected on Independence Day (4July 1914);  josephinae  is a matronym honoring Josè-phine de Beauharnais, Martinique’s most famous his-torical figure (Schwartz 1965); monilifer  is from theLatin ‘monile’( = necklace), presumably in referenceto the prominent scapular ocelli in males; pheristus  isfrom the Greek, meaning ‘quick in action,’presum-ably a reference to the liveliness of these geckos; psammius  presumably is from the Greek, meaning‘on the sand,’possibly a reference to the substratewhere lizards were collected; and ronaldi  is a pa-tronym for Ronald F. Klinikowski, co-collector of theholotype (Schwartz 1965). ã COMMENT . The date of collection of the type ser-ies of S. vincenti  is unknown, but the srcinal BMNHregistration numbers are–3 and–10, indicating that the specimens were srcinally ac-cessioned in the BMNH collection in 1890 and 1891.The specimens are recorded as having been collect-ed by H.H. Smith and presented by F.D. Godman (C.McCarthy, BMNH, in litt. , 3.I.2007).In light of the high level of island bank endemism inthe Lesser Antilles (e.g., Censky and Kaiser 1999)and the extreme variability of populations currentlyrecognized as distinct at the subspecific level, furtherresearch may very well reveal several full specieswithin what is now known as S. vincenti  . 1. Sphaerodactylus vincenti vincenti  Boulenger Sphaerodactylus vincenti  Boulenger 1891:354. Seespecies synonymy. Sphaerodactylus vincenti vincenti  : King 1962:33. ã DEFINITION . This subspecies is characterized bythe following combination of characters (N = 17; Sch-wartz 1965): maximum known SVLto 29 mm inmales and females; dorsal scales keeled, small,granular, numbering 41–51 from axilla to groin; ven-tral scales smooth, rounded, numbering 26–36 fromaxilla to groin; gulars keeled; chest scales smooth;midventral caudal scales expanded transversely intosmooth plates; supralabials to center of eye 3; fourthtoe lamellae 8–10; and escutcheons 21–31 scaleswide and 4–6 scales long.No sexual dichromatism is evident. Dorsal groundcolor is dark brown, without any pattern or with ob-scure tiny, dark flecks; venter is heavily stippled withbrown; head is dull yellow, with color continuing ven-trally onto the chin and throat; throat with a vague, 853.2 M AP . Distribution of  Sphaerodactylus vincenti  ;the type-locality of the nominate subspecies and of  S. v. monilifer  onDominica are too imprecise to plot;other type-localitiesare marked with circles,additional localities are markedwith dots;the range outline for S. v. monilifer  on Dominica  dark brown, linear pattern; iris pale bluish-green;suprapostorbital lines present in juveniles but ex-tremely faint to absent in adults; no ocelli; ventral sur-face of tail dull red, especially prominent in juveniles;and sacral V present in juveniles but may disappearin some adults. 2. Sphaerodactylus vincenti adamas  Schwartz Sphaerodactylus vincenti adamas  Schwartz 1965:397. Type-locality, “Rocher de Diamant, Martin-ique.” Holotype, Museum of Comparative Zool-ogy, Harvard University (MCZ) 77130, an adultmale collected on 27 March 1963 by R. Thomas(not examined by authors). ã DEFINITION . This subspecies is characterized bythe following combination of characters (N = 17; Sch-wartz 1965): maximum known SVLto 28 mm inmales and 27 mm in females; dorsal scales keeled,small, not imbricate, numbering 29–39 from axilla togroin; ventral scales smooth, rounded, imbricate,numbering 26–32 from axilla to groin; midbody scalerows number 44–50; gular scales weakly keeled tosmooth; midventral caudal scales smooth and lateral-ly expanded; internasals 0–3; supralabials to centerof eye 2–4; fourth toe lamellae 8–11; and escutch-eons 6 scales wide and 27 scales long.No sexual dichromatism is evident. Dorsal color isyellowish-tan to dark brown with coalesced darkbrown markings over entire back; ventral color gray,with no yellow on throat; head and neck with a fewdark specks; iris blue-gray; pattern of limbs marbledwith dark brown; dorsum of tail tan with prominentsacral V and two caudal chevrons, underside of tailgray; and a slightly paler nuchal collar bordered ante-riorly and posteriorly by a dark brown transverse line.In addition to the prominent collar, juveniles havethree dorsal transverse crossbands, the anteriormostpersisting in the pattern of some adults. 3. Sphaerodactylus vincenti diamesus  Schwartz Sphaerodactylus vincenti diamesus  Schwartz 1965:404. Type-locality, “Vigie Beach, Castries Quarter,St. Lucia.” Holotype, Museum of ComparativeZoology, Harvard University (MCZ) 77075, anadult male collected on 31 March 1963 by R.Thomas (not examined by authors). ã DEFINITION . This subspecies is characterized bythe following combination of characters (N = 5 plusthe holotype; Schwartz 1965): maximum known SVLto 28 mm in males, and to 29 mm in females; dorsalscales small, keeled, not imbricate, numbering 32–36from axilla to groin; ventral scales round, smooth,imbricate, numbering 27–31 from axilla to groin; mid-body scale rows number 46–50; gulars keeled; mid-ventral caudal scales smooth and laterally expanded;internasals 1–2; supralabials to center of eye 3–4;fourth toe lamellae 9–11; and escutcheons are 3scales wide and 24 scales long.No sexual dichromatism is evident. Dorsal color isyellowish-tan and stippled with tiny brown dots; ven-tral ground color pinkish-gray; head slightly more yel-lowish than dorsum; iris pale blue; throat pink andunpatterned; tail dull brown above and below; a faintpale nuchal bar barely outlined anteriorly and poste-riorly; sacral V present but faint; and suprapostorbitallines prominent in juveniles but absent in adults. 4. Sphaerodactylus vincenti festus  Barbour Sphaerodactylus festus  Barbour 1915:73. Type-local-ity, “Martinique,” restricted to “Fort-de-France,Martinique” by Barbour (1921). Holotype, Mu-seum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University(MCZ) 10622, an adult female collected on 4 July1914 by A.G. Ruthven (not examined by authors). Sphaerodactylus vincenti festus  : King 1962:30. ã DEFINITION . This subspecies is characterized bythe following combination of characters (N = 15; Sch-wartz 1965; note that the description of S. v. festus  ismislabeled in Schwartz’s paper as S. v. josephinae  ):maximum known SVLto 31 mm in both sexes; dorsalscales keeled, small, granular, numbering 40–54from axilla to groin, no well-defined middorsal area ofgranules, but middorsal scales are reduced in size;ventral scales smooth, rounded, numbering 28–36from axilla to groin; midbody scale rows number 54–61; gular scales are keeled, chest scales are smooth;midventral caudal scales smooth and laterally ex-panded; internasals 1–2; supralabials to center of eye3; fourth toe lamellae 9–11; and escutcheons 5–6scales wide and 19–27 scales long.No sexual dichromatism is evident, “except in finedetails” (Schwartz 1965). Dorsal color is tan, withheads distinctly yellow in both sexes. Black ocelli maybe discrete and enclose a white (males) or gray (fe-males) dot, or they may join across the back into aband that can enclose up to seven light dots. Adorsalpattern of dark brown marbling may be broken intodots or spots. Indistinct pale suprapostorbital lines join at the midline of the neck in some individuals,and is more prominent in juveniles. Asacral V usual-ly is prominent. The tail is dull brown above, oftenwith pale chevrons (if unregenerated) and dull orangebeneath. The throat is deep yellow to deep orange inmales and yellow to gray in females, occasionallywith faint gray longitudinal stripes. ã REMARKS . One specimen (AMNH 100453) fromBalata-Tourtet on the southern slopes of the Pitonsdu Carbet, Martinique, may be intermediate between S. v. pheristus  and S. v. festus  , suggesting that thetwo taxa may intergrade in that area (Schwartz 1965). 5. Sphaerodactylus vincenti josephinae  Schwartz Sphaerodactylus vincenti josephinae  Schwartz 1965:395. Type-locality, “Habitation Dizac, 1.5 km W.Le Diamant, Martinique.” Holotype, Museum ofComparative Zoology, Harvard University (MCZ)77077, an adult male collected on 27 March 1963by A. Schwartz (not examined by authors). 853.3  ã DEFINITION . This subspecies is characterized bythe following combination of characters (N = 23; Sch- wartz 1965): maximum known SVLto 29 mm inmales and 28 mm in females; dorsal scales keeled,small, not imbricate, numbering 31–39 from axilla togroin; ventral scales smooth, imbricate, round, num-bering 26–33 from axilla to groin; midbody scale rowsnumber 46–56; gulars keeled to smooth (if smooth, atleast a few scales with weak keels); chest scalessmooth; midventral caudal scales smooth and lateral-ly expanded; internasals 1–3; supralabials to centerof eye 3; fourth toe lamellae 8–11; and escutcheons18–25 scales wide and 3–6 scales long.No sexual dichromatism is evident, except in finedetails. Dorsal color is yellowish-tan to dark brownwith darker brown marbling or spotting. Heads have ayellowish wash, less obvious in females. The throat isimmaculate, pale yellow in males and yellowish-grayin females. The venter is more or less heavily stippledwith brown. Apair of transverse brown scapular linesencloses a slightly paler tan area, thus forming a faintcollar. The collar may be bordered on each side by anadditional brown line, for a total of 4 dark transverselines on the neck and shoulders. AV-shaped headpattern is most prominent in juveniles. Asacral V or Yis usually present. The dorsal ground color extendsonto the tail, generally with paler chevrons at leastbasally. The iris is blue. 6. Sphaerodactylus vincenti monilifer  Barbour Sphaerodactylus monilifer  Barbour 1921:271. Type-locality, “Dominica.” Holotype, Museum of Com-parative Zoology, Harvard University (MCZ)10786, a subadult male collected by G.A. Ra-mage, purchased from G.A. Ramage in Septem-ber 1888 and received in exchange by the MCZfrom the British Museum in 1915 (not examinedby authors). Sphaerodactylus vincenti monilifer  : Schwartz 1965:405. ã DEFINITION . This subspecies is characterized bythe following combination of characters (N = 6; Bar-bour 1921, Schwartz 1965): maximum known SVLto32 mm in males and females; dorsal scales keeled,small, granular, numbering 39–44 from axilla to groin;no well-defined middorsal area of granules, but mid-dorsal scales are reduced in size; ventral scalessmooth and round, numbering 30–35 from axilla togroin; scale rows around midbody number 47–51; gu-lars and chest scales keeled; midventral row of cau-dal scales expanded transversely into smooth plates;internasals 1–3; supralabials to center of eye 3–4;fourth toe lamellae 9–10; and escutcheon 28–32scales wide and 8–9 scales long.Sexual dichromatism is evident. Dorsal ground col-or of males is brown, with two black ocelli surround-ing a gray dot, and the remander of the dorsum vari-ously marbled with dark brown. Prominent suprapost-orbital lines are outlined on both sides with black andextend posteriorly to between the ocelli. The throat isdull yellow stippled with brown; ventral ground colordull yellow and stippled with gray or brown. Femaleslack ocelli, but have scapular spots lateral to the suprapostorbital lines. The throat and venter are dullyellow and stippled with brown to gray. Asacral V ispresent, the tail has dorsal chevrons, the undersideof the tail is orange, and the iris is brown in bothsexes. 7. Sphaerodactylus vincenti pheristus  Schwartz Sphaerodactylus vincenti pheristus  Schwartz 1965:395. Type-locality, “6 km SW Ajoupa-Bouillon,Martinique.” Holotype, Museum of ComparativeZoology, Harvard University (MCZ) 77074, anadult male collected on 28 March 1963 by A. Sch-wartz and R. Thomas (not examined by authors). ã DEFINITION . This subspecies is characterized bythe following combination of characters (N = 11; Sch-wartz 1965): large size, with maximum known SVLto40 mm in both sexes; dorsal scales strongly keeled,very small, not imbricate, numbering 52–63 from axil-la to groin; ventral scales strongly keeled, imbricate,numbering 34–40 from axilla to groin; scale rowsaround midbody number 63–75; midventral caudalscale row smooth and laterally expanded; internasals0–2; supralabials to center of eye 3–4; fourth toe la-mellae 9–13; and escutcheons 8–10 scale rows wideand 33–36 scale rows long.Sexual dichromatism is evident. Dorsal groundcolor in males is tan to very dark brown with a patternof brown rosettes. The venter is dark gray to almostblack. Head with a faint orange hue. The throat is yel-low to deep yellow-orange with brown stippling. Apairof large black ocelli with white centers is present onthe shoulders. The iris is grayish-blue. Ventral colorvaries from almost black to dark gray. Ocelli are dis-creet and white centered. Asacral V is present orabsent. The throat is yellow to deep yellow-orangeand usually patternless. The underside of the tailranges from black to orange. The dorsum in femalesis brown with irregular dark and light markings yield-ing a “camouflage” pattern. Ventral color is grayish-pink. The throat is tan with a vague darker brown pat-tern as in males. Ocelli are complete or open posteri-orly with tan centers. Prominent suprapostorbitalstripes extend behind and between the ocelli onto thescapular region, and may be indicated posteriorly asa pale median band on the anterior of the trunk andenclosing a marbled pale area covering much of theposterior surface of the head. Asacral V is presentand clearly defined. The underside of the tail isorange. ã REMARKS . This subspecies intergrades with S. v.ronaldi  along the northern coast of Martinique(Schwartz 1965). 8. Sphaerodactylus vincenti psammius  Schwartz Sphaerodactylus vincenti psammius  Schwartz 1965:398. Type-locality, “5 km south of Ste[.]-Anne,Grande Arise des Salines, Martinique.” Holotype, 853.4
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