Team Building & Team Work

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1. Team Building and Team Work Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University 2. Teamwork and High Performance Teams <ul><li>Study questions.…
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  • 1. Team Building and Team Work Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University
  • 2. Teamwork and High Performance Teams <ul><li>Study questions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is a high performance team …and what is teamwork ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is team building? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What can be done to improve team processes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do teams contribute to the high performance workplace? </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. What is a high performance team …and what is teamwork ? <ul><li>A team is a small group of people with complementary skills, who work actively together to achieve a common purpose for which they hold themselves collectively accountable. </li></ul><ul><li>Teams are one of the major forces behind revolutionary changes in contemporary organizations. </li></ul>
  • 4. What is a high performance team …and what is teamwork ? <ul><li>Types of teams. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams that recommend things. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Established to study specific problems and recommend solutions to them. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams that run things. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have formal responsibility for leading other groups. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams that make or do things. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Functional groups that perform ongoing tasks. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 5. What is a high performance team …and what is teamwork ? <ul><li>The nature of teamwork. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Team members actively work together in such a way that all of their respective skills are utilized to achieve a common purpose. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teamwork is the central foundation of any high performance team. </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. What is a high performance team …and what is teamwork ? <ul><li>Characteristics of high performance teams. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High performance teams: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have strong core values. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turn a general sense of purpose into specific performance objectives. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have the right mix of skills. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possess creativity. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 7. What is a high performance team …and what is teamwork ? <ul><li>Diversity and team performance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To create and maintain high performance teams, the elements of group effectiveness (Chapter 9) must be addressed and successfully managed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverse teams: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improve problem solving and increase creativity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May struggle in the short term. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have strong long-term performance potential. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 8. What is team building? <ul><li>Team members and leaders must work hard to achieve teamwork. </li></ul><ul><li>Team building helps in achieving teamwork. </li></ul><ul><li>Team building. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A sequence of planned activities designed to gather and analyze data on the functioning of a group and to initiate changes designed to improve teamwork and increase group effectiveness. </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. What is team building? <ul><li>How team building works. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Five step process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem or opportunity in team effectiveness. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data gathering and analysis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planning for team improvements. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Actions to improve team functioning. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of results. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 10. What is team building? <ul><li>Approaches to team building. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal retreat approach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Team building occurs during an offsite retreat. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous improvement approach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The manager, team leader, or members take responsibility for ongoing team building. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoor experience approach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Members engage in physically challenging situations that require teamwork. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 11. What can be done to improve team processes? <ul><li>Increased emphasis on teams and teamwork: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presents challenges to people accustomed to more traditional ways of working. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates complications due to multiple and shifting memberships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires team leaders and members to deal positively with group dynamics issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires ongoing team building. </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. What can be done to improve team processes? <ul><li>New member problems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New members are concerned about issues of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 13. What can be done to improve team processes? <ul><li>New member problems — cont . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior profiles of coping with individual entry problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tough battler. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Friendly helper. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Objective thinker. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 14. What can be done to improve team processes? <ul><li>Behavior profiles for coping. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tough battler. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is frustrated by a lack of identity in the new group. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May act aggressively or reject authority. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks to determine his or her role in the group. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 15. What can be done to improve team processes? <ul><li>Behavior profiles for coping — cont . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friendly helper. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is insecure, suffering uncertainties of intimacy and control. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May show extraordinary support for others, behave in a dependent way, and seek alliances. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needs to know whether she or he will be liked. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 16. What can be done to improve team processes? <ul><li>Behavior profiles for coping — cont . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective thinker. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is anxious about how personal needs will be met. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acts in a passive, reflective, and even single-minded manner. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concerned with fit between individual and group goals. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 17. What can be done to improve team processes? <ul><li>Task and maintenance leadership. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High performance teams require distributed leadership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The team leader and team members share in the responsibility of meeting task needs and maintenance needs. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 18. What can be done to improve team processes? <ul><li>Task activities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The various things members do that contribute directly to the performance of important group tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task activities include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initiating discussion. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing information. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asking information of others. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clarifying what has been said. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summarizing the status of a deliberation. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 19. What can be done to improve team processes? <ul><li>Maintenance activities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support the group’s social and interpersonal relationships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance activities include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging the participation of others. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trying to harmonize differences of opinion. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Praising the contributions of others. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreeing to go along with a popular course of action. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 20. What can be done to improve team processes? <ul><li>Groups members should avoid the following disruptive behaviors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being overly aggressive toward other members. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawing and refusing to cooperate with others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horsing around when there is work to be done. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using the group as a forum for self-confession. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talking too much about irrelevant matters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trying to compete for attention and recognition. </li></ul></ul>
  • 21. What can be done to improve team processes? <ul><li>Roles and role dynamics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A role is a set of expectations associated with a job or position on a team. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance problems occur when roles are unclear or conflictive. </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. What can be done to improve team processes? <ul><li>Roles and role dynamics — cont . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role ambiguity — o ccurs when a person is uncertain about his/her role. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role overload — o ccurs when too much is expected and the person feels overwhelmed with work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role underload — o ccurs when too little is expected and the person feels underutilized. </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. What can be done to improve team processes? <ul><li>Roles and role dynamics — cont . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role conflict — occurs when a person is unable to meet the expectations of others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms of role conflict. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intrasender role conflict. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intersender role conflict. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Person-role conflict. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interrole conflict. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 24. What can be done to improve team processes? <ul><li>Norms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represent beliefs about how group or team members are expected to behave. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are rules or standards of conduct. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify role expectations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help members to structure their behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help members to gain a common sense of direction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help to reinforce group or team culture. </li></ul></ul>
  • 25. What can be done to improve team processes? <ul><li>Key norms that can have positive or negative implications. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance norms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational and personal pride norms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-achievement norms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support and helpfulness norms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement and change norms. </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. What can be done to improve team processes? <ul><li>Team cohesiveness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The degree to which members are attached to and motivated to remain a part of the team. </li></ul></ul>
  • 27. What can be done to improve team processes? <ul><li>Members of highly cohesive groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value their membership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to maintain positive relationships with other members. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are energetic when working on team activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are not prone to absenteeism or turnover. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are genuinely concerned about team performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to satisfy a broad range of individual needs. </li></ul></ul>
  • 28. What can be done to improve team processes? <ul><li>High team cohesiveness occurs when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members are similar in age, attitudes, needs, and backgrounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group size is small. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members respect each others’ competencies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members agree on common goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members work on interdependent tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups are physically isolated from others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups experience performance success or crisis. </li></ul></ul>
  • 29. What can be done to improve team processes? <ul><li>Rule of conformity in group dynamics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The more cohesive the group, the greater the conformity of members to group norms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive performance norms in a highly cohesive group have a positive effect on task performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative performance norms in a highly cohesive group have a negative effect on task performance. </li></ul></ul>
  • 30. What can be done to improve team processes? <ul><li>Cohesiveness can be increased or decreased by making changes in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Membership composition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Member interactions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group size. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition within and between teams. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration. </li></ul></ul>
  • 31. How do teams contribute to the high performance workplace? <ul><li>Problem-solving teams. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee involvements teams include a wide variety of teams whose members meet regularly to collectively examine important workplace issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality circle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A special type of employee involvement team. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Team meets periodically to address problems relating to quality, productivity, or cost. </li><
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