THE REFORMATION and the religious Wars

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THE REFORMATION AND RELIGIOUS WARS Meaning of Reformation  It is typically associated with the 16th-century movement that took place in Western Europe aiming at changing some of the doctrines and practices followed by the Roman Catholic Church. It led to the founding of the different Protestant churches. It was two sided affair 1. It was a Protestant Reformation or religious revolt against the Vatican, led by Martin Luther, John Calvin, and other religious reformers, and resulted in the rise
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     THE REFORMATIONANDRELIGIOUS WARS          Meaning of Reformation    It is typically associated with the 16th-century movement that took place in Western Europe aiming at changing some of the doctrines  and practices followed by the Roman Catholic Church. It led to thefounding of the differentProtestantchurches.It was two sided affair 1.   It was a Protestant Reformation or religious revolt against theVatican, led by Martin Luther, John Calvin, and other religiousreformers, and resulted in the rise of various protestant sects.2.   It was a Catholic Counter Reformation because it brought aboutreforms within the Catholic Church which improved theCatholic faith.      The Decline of the Papacy    A fter the pontificate of Leo III, the papacy began to decline rapidlyas a result of the following.  1.   The removal of the papal seat from Rome (Italy) to A vignon(France). 2.   The ³Great Schism´. 3.   The rise of strong national states. 4.   The intellectual revolution sparked by the renaissance.   Forerunners of the Reformation o   There were many critics who denounced the evils in the church.  These evils included.   The vast properties and luxury of the church.   The sale of the church offices to unworthy prelates.   The scandalous immoralities and extravagances of the clergy   Certain church doctrines which were contrary to Christ¶steachings.The main forerunners of the Reform were: y   John Wycliffe in the XIV century in England. y   John Huss between the XIV and the XV century in Bohemia. y   Erasmus of Rotterdam.   Martin Luther(Father of the Protestant Revolt)    The man who led the protestant revolt and changed the image of Christendom. A German A ugustinian monk. The son of a poor miner,born in Eisleben, Germany. Despite his family¶s meagre income, he wasgiven a good education at the University of Erfurt. He became an A ugustinian monk and, later, a professor of theology at the University of Wittenberg.Between 1514 and 1518, he was spiritually troubled aboutsalvation. He began to doubt the church¶s teachings. One day he read theBible¶s teachings on salvation, ³For in it(in Christ) is the righteousnessof god revealed from faith to faith, it is written, ³The just shall live byfaith.´(Roman 1:17).  Luther¶s Break from Rome.    The manner in which John Tetzel, a Dominican friar, was sellingindulgences to raise funds for Rome aroused Luther¶s indignation. A nindulgence is salvation for a soul in purgatory or an exemption fromchurch rules. It is granted by the church in exchange for a pious deed or a sum of money. Rumours reached Luther that Tetzel was sellingindulgences to the people, promising forgiveness of their sins. OnOctober 31, 1517 Luther posted his famous ³Ninety-five Theses´ on thedoor of the church in Wittenberg, attacking the selling of indulgences.This was his public declaration of war against Rome.Meanwhile, he became highly popular with German princes andcommoners because he championed the idea of free salvation for everyone who believed in Christ.    Luther¶s Appeal to the German People.   A larmed by the rising popularity of Luther, Pope Leo X issued abull in June 1520, ordering him to recent his A nti-Catholic ideas or beexcommunicated. In the papal threat, Luther burned the copy of the bullbefore a large crowd in Wittenberg. y   A ugust 1520- Luther issued his 1 st pamphlet entitled ³ A ddress tothe Christian Nobility of the German Nation´. y   In his 2 nd pamphlet ³The Babylonian Captivity of the ChristianChurch´ published in the same month.         Luther¶s Defiance of the Pope and Emperor. 
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