Government Shutdown in the United States

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Government Shutdown in the United States
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  Letter from President Obama to USGovernment employees affected bythe shutdown in 2013 Government shutdown in the United States From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In U.S. politics, a government shutdown is a situation in whichCongress fails to pass authorization for sufficient funds for governmentoperations. Typically, the government stops providing all but essential services atfirst, but since Congress must authorize allexpenditures, there is no law protecting any government service fromstoppage.Federal services that may continue for a time after ashutdown include the National Weather Service and its parent agencies,medical services at federal facilities, armed forces, air trafficmanagement, andcorrections (the penal system).During the Ford and Carter administrations, there were 6 partialgovernment shutdowns that affected only the departments of Labor and Health, Education, and Welfare. These partial shutdowns lastedfrom 8 to 18 days and the primary issue of dispute was federalfunding for abortion.During the Reagan administration, there were 8 full government shutdowns that lasted only 1 to 3 days each, primarilyover theissue of the United States budget deficit. There was a similar 4-day shutdown during the first Bush administration.During the Clinton administration, after conservatives made massivecongressionalgainsin the 1994 Republican Revolution, there weretwo full government shutdowns lasting 5 and 21 days each, the second of which was by far the longest of itskind to that date. Theprimary issue was again the United States budget deficit. The United States federal government shutdown of 2013 is ongoing, having begun on 1 October 2013. The  primary issue of dispute between the Republican-controlled House of Representatives and theDemocrat-controlled Senate (the latter supported by President Obama) is the Republicans' desire to oppose the Affordable CareAct,signed into law in 2010. Contents 1 Mechanism of a shutdown2 Effects3 List of U.S. government shutdowns3.1 Federal government3.2 Local governments4 See also4.1 U.S.5 References6 External links Mechanism of a shutdown  Under the separation of powers created by the United States Constitution, both the Senate and House of Representatives must approve an agreed budget, which then goes to the President of the United States for signature. If the President vetoes the budget, it goes back to Congress, where the veto can be overridden by atwo-thirds vote. Government shutdowns tend to occur when the President and one or both of the chambers of Congress are unable to resolve disagreements over budget allocations before the existing budget cycle ends. [1] Shutdowns of the type experienced by the United States are nearly impossible in other democracies. Under the parliamentary system used in most European nations, the executive and legislative branch are not separate, withthe parliament designating all executive officials, typically called ministers . In non-parliamentary democracies, astrong executive branch typically has the authority to keep the government functioning even without an approved budget. This was the case in the United States up until 1980, when the administration of Jimmy Carter interpreted the 1884 Antideficiency Act to limit the power of federal agencies in the lack of congressionalapproval. [2] Effects A federal government shutdown causes a large number of civilian federal employees to be furloughed. Activeduty military personnel (those on Title 10 status) and essential employees are not furloughed, but may not be paid as scheduled [3][4] if at all for the period of the furlough.The exact details of which government functions would stop during a shutdown is determined by the Office of Management and Budget. [5] However, some specific aspects have applied to all shutdowns in the past. Amongthese is the closure of national parks and passport offices. [6] Emergency personnel continue to be employed,including the active duty (Title 10) military, federal law enforcement agents, doctors and nurses working infederal hospitals, and air traffic controllers. [5] For the Department of Defense, at least half of the civilianworkforce, and the full-time, dual-status military technicians in the National Guard and traditional Guardsmen(those on Title 32 status) are furloughed and not paid while the shutdown is in effect. Members of Congresscontinue to be paid, because their pay cannot be altered except by direct law. [7] Mail delivery is not affected asit is self-funded and the funds are not appropriated by Congress. [8] Shutdowns in the past have also affected the Washington, D.C., municipal government, closing schools andsuspending utilities such as garbage collection. [9] List of U.S. government shutdowns Federal government Starting in 1976, the United States Federal Government has shut down on 18 occasions: [10][11][12] YearStartdate(exclu-sive)Enddate(exclu-sive)TotaldaysPresidentSenateHouseCircumstances Citing out of control spending,President Gerald Ford vetoeda funding bill for the UnitedStates Department of Labor and the United States  1976Sep 30Oct 1110FordDemDemDepartment of Health,Education, and Welfare(HEW), leading to a partialgovernment shutdown. OnOctober 1, theDemocratically-controlledCongress overrode Ford'sveto but it took until October 11 for a continuing resolutionending funding gaps for other  parts of government to become law.1977Sep 30Oct 1312CarterDemDemThe Democratically-controlled House continued touphold the ban on usingMedicaid dollars to pay for abortions, except in caseswhere the life of the mother was at stake. Meanwhile, theDemocratic-controlled Senate pressed to loosen the ban toallow abortion funding in thecase of rape or incest. Afunding gap was createdwhen disagreement over theissue between the houses had become tied to funding for theDepartments of Labor andHEW, leading to a partialgovernment shutdown. Atemporary agreement wasmade to restore fundingthrough October 31, 1977,allowing more time for Congress to resolve itsdispute.1977Oct 31Nov 98CarterDemDemThe earlier temporary fundingagreement expired. PresidentJimmy Carter signed a secondfunding agreement to allowfor more time for negotiation.1977Nov 30Dec 98CarterDemDemThe second temporaryfunding agreement expired.The House held firm againstthe Senate in its effort to banMedicaid paying for theabortions of victims of   statutory rape. A deal waseventually struck whichallowed Medicaid to pay for abortions in cases resultingfrom rape, incest, or in whichthe mother's health is at risk.1978Sep 30Oct 1818CarterDemDemDeeming them wasteful,President Carter vetoed a public works appropriations bill and a defense bill includingfunding for a nuclear- powered aircraft carrier.Spending for the Departmentof HEW was also delayedover additional disputesconcerning Medicaid fundingfor abortion.1979Sep 30Oct 1211CarterDemDemAgainst the opposition of theSenate, the House pushed for a 5.5 percent pay increase for congress members and senior civil servants. The House alsosought to restrict federalspending on abortion only tocases where the mother's lifeis in danger, while the Senatewanted to maintain funding for abortions in cases of rape andincest.1981Nov 20Nov 232ReaganRepDemPresident Ronald Reagan pledged that he would vetoany spending bill that failed toinclude at least half of the$8.4 billion in domestic budget cuts that he proposed.Although the Republicancontrolled Senate passed a bill that met his specifications,the Democratically controlledHouse insisted on larger cutsto defense than Reaganwanted as well as pay raisesfor congress and senior civilservants. A compromise billfell $2 billion short of the cutsReagan wanted, so Reaganvetoed the bill and shut down
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