Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation HSCT Overview

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Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) Overview. Willis H Navarro, MD Medical Director, Transplant Services, NMDP Associate Clinical Professor, UCSF The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society May 20, 2010 . Disclosures.
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Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) Overview Willis H Navarro, MD Medical Director, Transplant Services, NMDP Associate Clinical Professor, UCSF The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society May 20, 2010 Disclosures
  • I am an employee of the National Marrow Donor Program, a non-profit 501(c)3 corporation
  • Outline
  • What types of transplants are there?
  • How is the matching procedure done?
  • What issues are there with quality of life after HSCT?
  • Global Terms for Marrow Transplant Hematopoietic Cell Transplant (HCT) Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT) Bone Marrow Transplant All these terms refer to the process of replacing the marrow after treatment with chemotherapy ± radiation Identifying the Stem Cell Source Marrow Peripheral Blood Stem Cells Cord Blood Identifying the Individual Providing the Blood Stem Cell Allogeneic Blood stem cells obtained from someone other than the patient Autologous Blood stem cells obtained from the patient him/herself Some terminology first… Preparative or Conditioning Regimen The treatment (chemo, radiation, antibodies) used to help the new marrow take hold Reduced Intensity/ Non-Myeloablative A type of allogeneic transplant in which the prep is immunosuppressive, minimally cytotoxic Cytotoxicity The ability of an anticancer medication to kill cells (both good and bad cells) More Terminology--Describing the Transplant The blood-forming system lives in the bone marrow, distributed throughout all the bones The immune system is inextricably linked to the blood system The hematopoietic system is generally the most sensitive organ to the effects of chemotherapy And some hematology basics… What does an HSCT get you? distributed throughout all the bones
  • It depends on the type…
  • Autologous: using cells from the patient
  • Very high doses of chemo ± radiation
  • Aim is to kill cancer cells with intermediate resistance to standard chemo doses
  • Cytotoxicity is the main benefit, no immune attack against cancer cells
  • Allogeneic: using cells from someone other than the patient
  • Immunologic effect called graft-versus-disease effect (the donor immune system battles cancer cells)
  • Cytotoxicity: depends on the prep regimen
  • Autologous Transplant distributed throughout all the bones
  • Big “Bang” is from the prep regimen
  • Provides a means to give very high dose chemo to kill cancer cells
  • In the process the marrow is damaged
  • Marrow is then “rescued”
  • No immunologic benefit
  • But no risk of graft-versus-host disease
  • Short term risks: low counts, mouth sores, skin rashes, organ damage, hair loss, taste changes, “chemo brain”
  • Long term risks: secondary cancers, organ damage, sterility
  • Allogeneic Transplant distributed throughout all the bones
  • Uses immunologic reaction: donor’s immune system vs cancer cells
  • Can be extremely potent (and dangerous, when against the patient’s organs [GVHD])
  • Cell kill (cytotoxicity) depends on prep regimen (full vs reduced intensity)
  • Short term risks (depends on prep regimen): infections, acute graft-versus-host disease, graft failure, relapse
  • Long term risks: chronic graft-vs-host disease, infections, second cancers, organ damage, relapse, sterility
  • Matching and HLA distributed throughout all the bones
  • Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) molecules are used by the immune system to figure out what is “self” vs foreign
  • A set of HLA molecules (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQ) is called a “haplotype” [half set]
  • Everyone inherits two sets of HLA genes: one from mom, one from dad (so everyone has two A genes, two B genes, etc.)
  • Mom
  • In looking for an HLA match, the chance any one sib will match is 25%
  • For the roughly 70% of pts without a sib match, the NMDP will facilitate obtaining cells from a matched donor
  • Dad The HCT Process-Collection distributed throughout all the bones
  • The donor experience-marrow harvest
  • http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bone_marrow_biopsy.jpg http://www.walgreens.com/marketing/library/contents.html?docid=000122&doctype=10 The HCT Process-Collection distributed throughout all the bones
  • The donor experience-PBSC
  • The HCT Process-Recipient distributed throughout all the bones Prep (variable length) Engraftment Day -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 +9 +14 +21 +28 Quality of Life Issues distributed throughout all the bones
  • Depends on the type of transplant performed
  • Autologous: predominantly due to high dose chemotherapy
  • Short term side effects
  • Fatigue, hair loss, taste changes, skin dryness and pigment changes, organ damage
  • Long term side effects
  • Risk of second cancers, effects of organ damage
  • Allogeneic: much more complicated because of graft-versus-host risk, slower immune system recovery
  • Some allogeneic transplants use less intense chemo, results in decreased chemo-related side effects; some use full intensity and have similar effects as an autologous HCT
  • Graft-versus-host: short term can cause organ damage, in the longer term, often behaves like an autoimmune disease
  • Risk of GVHD is related to the degree of HLA match
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