Intelligent Systems and Molecular Biology

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Intelligent Systems and Molecular Biology Richard H. Lathrop Dept. of Computer Science [email protected] Donald Bren Hall 4224 949-824-4021 “Computers are to…
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Intelligent Systems and Molecular Biology Richard H. Lathrop Dept. of Computer Science [email protected] Donald Bren Hall 4224 949-824-4021 “Computers are to Biology as Mathematics is to Physics.”--- Harold Morowitz(spiritual father of BioMatrix, and Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology Conference) Goal of talk: The power of information science to influence molecular science and technology Intelligent Systems and Molecular Biology Physics.”
  • Artificial Intelligence for Biology and Medicine
  • Biology is data-rich and knowledge-hungry
  • AI is well suited to biomedical problems
  • Examples
  • Machine learning -- drug discovery
  • Rule-based systems – drug-resistant HIV
  • Heuristic search -- protein structure prediction
  • Constraints – design of large synthetic genes
  • Current Project
  • Machine learning and p53 cancer rescue mutants
  • Goal of talk: The power of information science to influence molecular science and technology
  • Biology has become Data Rich Physics.”
  • Massively Parallel Data Generation
  • Genome-scale sequencing
  • High-throughput drug screening
  • Micro-array “gene chips”
  • Combinatorial chemical synthesis
  • “Shotgun” mutagenesis
  • Directed protein evolution
  • Two-hybrid protocols for protein interaction
  • Half a million biomedical articles per year
  • “Data Rich” Physics.”Genomic sequence data “Data Rich” Physics.”Protein 3D structure data Protein Databank Content Growth “Data Rich” Physics.”Biomedical literature “Data Rich” Physics.”10-100K data points per gene chip Characteristics of Biomedical Data Physics.”
  • Noise!!
  • => need robust analysis methods
  • Little or no theory.
  • => need statistics, probability
  • Multiple scales, tightly linked.
  • => need cross-scale data integration
  • Specialized (“boutique”) databases
  • => need heterogeneous data integration
  • Intelligent Systems are well suited to biology and medicine Physics.”
  • Robust in the face of inherent complexity
  • Extract trends and regularities from data
  • Provide models for complex processes
  • Cope with uncertainty and ambiguity
  • Content-based retrieval from literature
  • Ontologies for heterogeneous databases
  • Machine learning and data mining
  • Intelligent systems handle complexity with grace
  • Intelligent Systems and Molecular Biology Physics.”
  • Artificial Intelligence for Biology and Medicine
  • Biology is data-rich and knowledge-hungry
  • AI is well suited to biomedical problems
  • Examples
  • Machine learning -- drug discovery
  • Rule-based systems – drug-resistant HIV
  • Heuristic search -- protein structure prediction
  • Constraints – design of large synthetic genes
  • Current Project
  • Machine learning and p53 cancer rescue mutants
  • Goal of talk: The power of information science to influence molecular science and technology
  • p53 and Human Cancers Physics.”
  • p53 is a central tumor suppressor protein “The guardian of the genome”
  • Controls many tumor suppression functions Monitors cellular distress
  • The most-mutated gene in human cancers All cancers must disable the p53 apoptosis pathway.
  • p53 core domain bound to DNA Image generated with UCSF Chimera Cho, Y.,  Gorina, S.,  Jeffrey, P.D.,  Pavletich, N.P. Crystal structure of a p53 tumor suppressor-DNA complex: understanding tumorigenic mutations. Sciencev265pp.346-355, 1994 Consequences of Physics.”p53 mutations ~250,000 US deaths/year Loss of DNA contact Disruption of local structure Denaturation of entire core domain Over 1/3 of all human cancers express full-length p53 with only one a.a. change Cho et al., Science 265, 346-355 (1994) + Physics.” = Anti-Cancer Drug Cancer Mutation Inactive p53 Active p53 Mutations Rescue Cancerous p53 Cancer Cancer+Rescue Mutations Active p53 Wild Type Active p53 Cancer Mutation Inactive p53 Ultimate Goal Cancer Suppressor Mutations Physics.”Several second-site mutations restore functionality to some p53 cancer mutants in vivo. C 273 248 249 175 245 282 N C S 102-292 324-355 1-42 Transactivation Core domain for DNA binding Tetramerization Class Labels: Physics.”Active/+ or Inactive/- p53 Transcription Assay Confirm: Human 1299 Cell-based Luciferase Initial: Yeast Growth Selection, Sequencing ACTIVE (+) First measurement Firefly luciferase p53 dependent Will grow. Human p53 consensus URA− Second measurement Renilla luciferase p53 independent Will not grow. (S) = Strong (W) = Weak (N) = Negative INACTIVE (-) Baroni, T.E., et al., 2004 Danziger, S.D., et al., 2009 Baronio, R., et al., 2010 Knowledge Physics.” Theory Experiment Active Machine Learning for Biological Discovery Find New Cancer Rescue Mutants How Big is The Problem? Physics.” Known Mutants ~167 stars Known Actives ~1 star Known Mutants: 16,722 Known Actives: 143 Assuming up to 5 mutations in 200 residuesHow Many Mutants are There?: ~10^11 Spiral Galaxy M101 http://hubblesite.org/ ~10^9 stars. Choose Examples to Label Physics.” Computational Active Learning Pick the Best (= Most Informative) Unknown Examples to Label Unknown Known Example N+1 Example 1 Train the Classifier Example N+2 Example 2 Classifier Example N+3 Example 3 Example N+4 … … Example N Example M Training Set Add New Examples To Training Set Visualization of Selected Regions Physics.” Danziger, et al. (2009) Positive Region: Predicted Active 96-105  (Green) Negative Region: Predicted Inactive 223-232 (Red) Expert Region: Predicted Active 114-123 (Blue) Novel Single-a.a. Cancer Rescue Mutants Physics.” p-Values are two-tailed, comparing Positive to Negative and Expert regions.Danziger, et al. (2009) No significant differences between the MIP Positive and Expert regions. Both were statistically significantly better than the MIP Negative region. The Positive region rescued for the first time the cancer mutant P152L. No previous single-a.a. rescue mutants in any region. A Long-held Goal of Anti-cancer Therapy Physics.” p53 Restore p53 function by a drug compound active inactive cancer mutant reactivation compound Restore p53 tumor suppressor pathways in tumor cells reactivated A Serendipitous Discovery Physics.”(With a Great Deal of Support) Cys124 (yellow) is occluded in “closed” PDB structure. (b) Cys124 structural “breathing” in “open” MD geometry. (Wassman, et al., 2013) Other Computational Support Physics.” c d (c)Cys124 (yellow) is surrounded by p53 reactivation (“rescue”) mutations (green)(Wassman, et al., 2013) (d) “Druggable” pockets in p53 from FTMAP (orange) (Brenke, et al., 2009) Stictic Physics.” acid docked into open L1/S3 pocket of p53 variants wtp53; (b) R175H; (c) R273H; (d) G245S. (Wassman, et al., 2013) 14 Actives in first 91 assayed Physics.” 1 Saos-2 (p53null) 0.8 0.6 R175H G245S 0.4 0.2 0 32LDE 28NZ6 22LSV 25KKL 27VFS 26RQZ Vehicle 33BAZ 35ZWF 32CTM 33AG6 27WT9 27TGR PRIMA-1 Stictic acid Soas2, Soas2-p53-R175H or Soas2-G245S cells plated at 10000 per well with the different compounds. Samples are collected after 72 hours and tested for cell viability (Cell-titer Glo, promega). Selective inhibition of R175H (red) or G245S (blue) cells versus p53null cells (black) identifies a compound that potentially reactivates p53. Photomicrograph of cell Physics.”viability(of 91 compounds assayed) DMSO 26RQZ 27WT9 33AG6 33BAZ 35ZWF p53-null R175H G245S Compounds induced cell death in cells expressing p53 cancer mutants but not p53null cells. Cells were cultured with vehicle (DMSO) or the compounds indicated (concentrations as above) for 24 h and micrographs were taken. C Physics.” N C S I II III IV V C N C S I II III IV V C N C S I II III IV V C N C S I II III IV V C N C S I II III IV V C N C S I II III IV V C N C S I II III IV V C N C S I II III IV V C N C S I II III IV V C N C S I II III IV V C N C S I II III IV V C N C S I II III IV V C N C S I II III IV V C N C S I II III IV V C N C S I II III IV V C N C S I II III IV V C N C S I II III IV V C N C S I II III IV V C N C S I II III IV V The long road to a future anti-cancer drug Peter Kaiser Rommie Amaro Dick Chamberlin Melanie Cocco Hudel Luecke Wes Hatfield Chris Wassman Roberta Baronio Ozlem Demir Faezeh Salehi Edwin Vargas Da-Wei Lin drug Intelligent Systems and Molecular Biology Physics.”
  • Artificial Intelligence for Biology and Medicine
  • Biology is data-rich and knowledge-hungry
  • AI is well suited to biomedical problems
  • Examples
  • Machine learning -- drug discovery
  • Rule-based systems – drug-resistant HIV
  • Heuristic search -- protein structure prediction
  • Constraints – design of large synthetic genes
  • DNA nanotechnology and space-filling DNA tetrahedra
  • Current Project
  • Machine learning and p53 cancer rescue mutants
  • Goal of talk: The power of information science to influence molecular science and technology
  • p53 Cancer Rescue Acknowledgments Physics.”
  • Rainer Brachmann (discovered p53 cancer rescue mutants)
  • Peter Kaiser (co-PI for biology)
  • RommieAmaro (UCSD, molecular dynamics, virtual screening & docking)
  • Scott Rychnovsky (current synthetic chemistry work)
  • Wes Hatfield (Director, Computational Biology Research Lab)
  • Hartmut (“Hudel”) Luecke (DSF and other structural biology work)
  • Chris Wassman (then my post-doc, now at Google, discovered L1/S3 pocket)
  • Roberta Baronio (Research scientist, did most of the biology work)
  • OzlemDemir (UCSD, molecular dynamics, virtual screening & docking)
  • FaezehSalehi (Graduate student, current computational work)
  • Colleagues: Linda Hall, Melanie Cocco, Pierre Baldi, Richard Chamberlin
  • Funding: UCI Chao Cancer Center, UCI Medical Scientist Training Program, UCI Office of Research and Graduate Studies, UCI Institute for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Harvey Fellowship, US National Science Foundation,
  • US National Institutes of Health (National Cancer Institute)
  • Intelligent Systems and Molecular Biology Physics.” Artificial Intelligence for Biology and Medicine Biology is data-rich and knowledge-hungry AI is well suited to biomedical problems Examples Machine learning -- drug discovery Rule-based systems – drug-resistant HIV Heuristic search -- protein structure prediction Constraints – design of large synthetic genes DNA nanotechnology and space-filling DNA tetrahedra Current Project Machine learning and p53 cancer rescue mutants Goal of talk: The power of information science to influence molecular science and technology 3D DNA Nanostructures Physics.” Christopher D. Wassman UC Irvine Dept. of Computer Science Why DNA Nanotechnology Physics.”
  • DNA has an well understood 3D structure
  • DNA is easily synthesized and manipulated
  • DNA Feature Sizes:
  • 3.6 nm per helical rise,
  • 2 nm helical width
  • Intel Feature Sizes:
  • Current chips, 45nm feature size
  • Research chips, 32nm feature size (Sept, 2008)
  • Bio-Nanotechnology is a emerging field
  • Lots to do, and lots of fun to be had!
  • Tiling 3-Space Physics.” A familiar concept Building blocks Cubes fill space Cylinders do not Other building blocks are possible We will focus on tetrahedral building blocks, constructed by “folding DNA” Irregular Tetrahedra… Physics.” Can Tile 3-Space Completely! Full Tetrahedron Physics.” A Closer Look Physics.” Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Physics.” Experimental AFM Image Physics.” Simulated AFM Image Physics.” Y axis (nanometers) X axis (nanometers) Experimental AFM Image Physics.” Y axis (nanometers) X axis (nanometers)
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