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Morphing, . and. Warping. Blending. Cartographic Applications. Definition . Morphing is a special technique that creates a smooth, controlled transformation of one image into another. . Transforming Shape. Warping vs Morphing Warping Single object
Morphing, andWarpingBlendingCartographic ApplicationsDefinition
  • Morphing is a special technique that creates a smooth, controlled transformation of one image into another.
  • Transforming ShapeWarping vs Morphing
  • Warping
  • Single object
  • Specification of original and deformed states
  • Morphing
  • Two objects
  • Specification of initial and final states
  • Warping and Morphing
  • Warping
  • • Source object
  • • No target object
  • Morphing
  • • Source object
  • • Target object
  • Warping versus MorphingWarping MorphingSpecification of Transformations
  • Global Transformations
  • Affine Maps
  • Projective Maps
  • Non-Linear Maps
  • Specification
  • Definitions
  • Correspondence
  • association between two regions
  • defines original and final states
  • Specification
  • set of correspondences
  • Warping x Morphing
  • Warping
  • Single object
  • Specification of original and deformed states
  • Morphing (metamorphosis)
  • Two objects
  • Specification of initial and final states
  • Types of Specification
  • Parametric
  • Partition-based
  • Feature-based
  • Automatic or semi-automatic
  • Parametric SpecificationSpecification by Partition
  • Regions cover the entire object
  • Regular x Irregular partitions
  • Same topology: original and final sets
  • Partition ExamplesSpecification by Features
  • Regions do not cover the object
  • Dimension of features £ object dimension
  • Examples: points, vectors, planes, boxes,...
  • Feature (Vector) ExamplesTransforming AttributesTexture, ColorLinear Blending
  • A and B objects in a vector space
  • c(t) = (1 - t) A + t B
  • c(0) = A, c(1) = B
  • Functions (attributes)
  • Subsets of space (shape)
  • Also Bilinear, Trilinear and Affine Blending
  • Shape Warp + Attribute BlendingLinear Color Interpolation(cross dissolve)Some Guidelines for a good morphing
  • Feature preservation
  • Smoothness preservation
  • Avoid linearities
  • use adaptive methods
  • Avoid leakageSelect and warp foreground onlyExample of Morphing and Attribute Transformation form FantamorphGeometry Deformation
  • Change of Coordinate Systems
  • Animation
  • Emphasis
  • Stretch
  • Squash
  • Distortion plus Motion
  • Animation
  • Keyframes
  • Tweens
  • Motion
  • Shape
  • The World according to Aaron “Garp” ArthurTypes of WarpsWarping Techniques
  • Barycentric mapping
  • Field-based mapping
  • Radial basis functions - RBF
  • Free-form deformation - FFD
  • Multi-pass spline mesh
  • Physically-based warping
  • Parametric (global) warpingExamplesaspectrotationtranslationperspectivecylindricalaffineRotationxT = xs (cos(q)) + ys (sin(q))yT = ys (cos(q)) - xs (sin(q))Scale ChangexT = mxsyT = nysScaling coefficient m usually is the same as n Translationxs = xs + Dxys = ys + DyBilinear Coordinate TransformationBilinear Coordinate Transformation
  • Transformation Equations are:
  • xT = axs + bys + cxsys + d yT = exs + fys + gxsys + h
  • Which are solved simultaneously
  • From a minimum of 4 points whose
  • Coordinates are known in both systems.
  • Forward warping
  • Send each pixel f(x,y) to its corresponding location
  • (x’,y’)=T(x,y) in the second image
  • if pixel lands “between” two pixels distribute color among neighboring pixels (x’,y’), known as “splatting”
  • OriginTargetT(x,y)yy’xx’f(x,y)g(x’,y’)T-1(x,y)Inverse Warping
  • Get each pixel g(x’,y’) from its corresponding location
  • (x,y)=T-1(x’,y’) in the first image
  • if pixel comes from “between” two pixels, Interpolate color value from neighbors
  • nearest neighbor, bilinear, Gaussian, bicubic
  • Inverse warping usually better because it eliminates holes, but it is not always possible.
  • OriginTargetyy’xxx’f(x,y)g(x’,y’)Applications
  • Genesis in the graphic arts, movies
  • Yet, Morphing is not just a special effect:
  • Lens distortion correction
  • Graphical objects modeling
  • Motion capture data interpolation
  • Accelerated Rendering
  • Mapping “significance”ApplicationsArea = the relative significance of states based on electoral college votes Applications: Interpolation of AnimationExample: Glacial MetamorphosisConsiderations: Frame time resolution Speed of motion Realistic shapesGeoregister Maps: Example Rubber Sheeting in ArcGIS
  • For two raster maps in separate layers in ArcGIS. Look up procedure in Help under “georeferencing.”
  • Work with tools in georeferencing menu bar
  • httpChina Historical GIS: georeferencingApplications: Photorectification
  • Example: Leica Photogrammetry Suite
  • Corrects for camera, camera angle, and relief distortions.
  • Applications: Showing Change
  • Not just areal change, but also warping of a surface to show change in mapped parameters, such as population density or temperature.
  • Terragen: Mount St. Helens MorphIs this morph realistic?Software used in different types of morphingImage morphing software
  • Morpheous Photo Morpher
  • Winmorph
  • Abrosoft Fantatmorph
  • Terrain imaging software
  • Terragen
  • Bryrce 5.5
  • Other software capable of morphing
  • Autodesk Map 3D 2007
  • Esri Arcview 9.1
  • Flash
  • Landscapes done in Bryce ‘Canyon Walls’ by Burpee ‘Hidden Valley‘ by Andy Simmons Landscape created in terragen By: Giancarolo
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