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1. Political developments following the War High Stalinism, 1945-1953 2. Ideological developments, 1945-53 <ul><li>Andrei Zhdanov was a leading figure in…
  • 1. Political developments following the War High Stalinism, 1945-1953
  • 2. Ideological developments, 1945-53 <ul><li>Andrei Zhdanov was a leading figure in Soviet regime after ’45 as member of both Secretariat and Politburo. </li></ul><ul><li>Zhdanov promoted strict conformity to Party line, and those who refused were either exiled or worse. However, far fewer Communists were purged during this time than compared to the Great Terror. </li></ul><ul><li>Zhdanov strongly opposed “Western” influences eg. denounced jazz. He also dictated what was shown on stage and in cinemas. </li></ul>Andrei Zhdanov
  • 3. The impact of Cold War politics <ul><li>There were a number of differences between the West and the USSR that had been papered over in the fight against Hitler. </li></ul><ul><li>However, following their victory the mistrust between the USSR and the West grew. This was due to the West’s fear of Communist expansion as the Soviet Union gained new territories in Eastern Europe, including Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria. </li></ul><ul><li>The West did not share their knowledge of the atom bomb after it was dropped on Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>These conflicts led to the development of the Cold War, which in turn created two reactions within the Soviet Union: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Campaign against “cosmopolitanism” led by Zhdanov. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upsurge in Russian nationalism, eg. invention of the radio attributed to a Russian. German founder of Communism, Karl Marx, became an ‘honorary’ Russian. </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. A new Terror <ul><li>Leningrad </li></ul><ul><li>With the growing frailty of Stalin and the sudden death of Zhdanov in ‘48, there were a number of leading Communists who manoeuvred themselves into position for eventually taking over as leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Beria and Malenkov decided to launch a major purge of the Leningrad Party. Agreed by Stalin, over 200 officials were arrested and some shot. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin always believed that Leningrad was the “window on the West”. It was the scene for the start of the Great Terror following the assassination of Kirov in ‘34. </li></ul>Beria and Malenkov
  • 5. A new Terror <ul><li>Georgia </li></ul><ul><li>Several Party security officials and administrators in Georgia were arrested. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin despised his fellow Georgian, Beria, although he had relied upon him as his security chief for many years. The Georgian Purge was seen as an attack on Beria, though he was allowed to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>Jews </li></ul><ul><li>‘ 48 there was also an outburst of anti-Semitism where a number of leading Russian Jews were tortured into confessing treason and executed. Even Molotov’s wife was arrested. </li></ul><ul><li>In ‘53 the bizarre “doctors plot” saw a number of the Kremlin’s doctors, who were mostly Jewish, were accused of poisoning Zhdanov and attempting to kill Stalin. This purge was only cut short by the death of Stalin himself. </li></ul>
  • 6. Task <ul><li>Read “Interpretations of Stalin’s rule” from p.39-41. </li></ul><ul><li>Create two columns: Stalin was in control of a totalitarian society and Other individuals and groups were more influential than popularly believed </li></ul><ul><li>Use the information from p.39-41 to add details to these two columns. </li></ul>
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