Status Report on LHC Beam Instrumentation

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Status Report on LHC Beam Instrumentation. LHC Machine Advisory Committee 6 th December 2007 Rhodri Jones on behalf of the CERN Beam Instrumentation Group. Overview. Status of BI Systems Beam loss measurement Installation Status Beam Test Results Orbit & trajectory measurement
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Status Report onLHC Beam InstrumentationLHC Machine Advisory Committee6th December 2007Rhodri Joneson behalf of theCERN Beam Instrumentation GroupOverview
  • Status of BI Systems
  • Beam loss measurement
  • Installation Status
  • Beam Test Results
  • Orbit & trajectory measurement
  • Installation Status
  • Use of the system for aperture checks with the RF ball
  • Transverse Beam Size Measurement
  • Rest Gas Ionisation Monitors
  • Wire Scanners
  • US-LARP Contributions
  • Collision Rate Monitors (LBNL)
  • Schottky Monitors (FNAL)
  • Advances on Other Systems
  • Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007The LHC Beam Loss SystemRole of the BLM system:
  • Protect the LHC from damage
  • Dump the beam to avoid magnet quenches
  • Diagnostic tool to improve performance of LHC
  • Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007Design criteria: Signal speed and reliabilityDynamic range (> 109) limited by leakage current through insulator ceramics (lower) and space charge saturation (upper) Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM):Length 10 cmP < 10-7 bar~ 30000 times smaller gain Ionization chamber:N2 gas filling at 100 mbar over-pressureLength 50 cmSensitive volume 1.5 lIon collection time 85 s Both monitors:Parallel electrodes(Al or Ti) separated by 0.5cmLow pass filter at the HV inputVoltage 1.5 kVLHC Beam Loss Detectors Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007BLM System Status
  • Production
  • Ionisation chambers (IC)
  • 4250 produced at IHEP & delivered to CERN
  • Relative gas gain verified at CERN-GIF (gamma irradiation facility) for 4000
  • Secondary Emission Monitors (SEM)
  • 350 produced at IHEP & 250 tested so-far in proton beam at CERN
  • Vacuum verified (< 5x10-5 bar)
  • If too high  ionisation chamber & gives ~2300 times more gain
  • Integrated charge of 4 SPS cyclesSEM Calibration
  • Very good production quality achieved for both
  • Only 16 from 4000 ionisation chambers & 2 from 250 SEMs failed the tests
  • Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007BLM System Status
  • Installation
  • Follows LHC schedule
  • 66% of ionisation chambers installed
  • 29% of SEMs installed (collimation areas missing)
  • Electronics installed in Sector 8–1
  • BLM Testing
  • Complete BLM system tests in SPS – shots of 1013 protons on collimator
  • High intensity & short duration simulated LHC transient beam impact
  • Tested the complete LHC BLM system: hardware & software
  • Results
  • Cross talk observed in multi-conductor cables carrying both ionisation & SEM signals
  • Re-cabling required in all LSS to separate IC & SEM signals (done except 5L)
  • Cross talk observed between different ionisation chamber channels
  • Low pass filter to reduce signal slope for straight section ICs (to be done)
  • Next Tests
  • EMC with injection kicker magnets & availability of installed BLMs
  • Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007Status of Software Elements for the BLM System
  • Tested:
  • Data Concentrator
  • Change of thresholds
  • Change of beam energy
  • Transmission to logging system
  • Triggered data generation -40ms, 2ms data
  • Post mortem
  • XPOC
  • Collimation
  • Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007Threshold Setting AccuracyHERA DUMP: M. Stockner (thesis)Geant4Geant4Threshold setting accuracydepends mainly on
  • Secondary shower simulation
  • Quench level knowledge
  • Secondary Shower Simulation
  • Difficult to simulate far transverse tails
  • Compared with HERA measurements
  • Geant4 and FLUKA agree with each other within errors bars at 39 GeV and 920 GeV
  • Discrepancy of factor ~2 between measurements and simulation
  • Not unexpected from simulation uncertainties for far transverse tails
  • Consequences for LHC:
  • Geant4 (QGSP-BERT-HP) & FLUKA qualified for threshold simulation
  • Can expect systematic error for the LHC simulation of 50%
  • Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007Quench Level KnowledgeNetwork model (PSpice) used to simulate thermodynamic behavior of LHC superconducting magnets in steady stateCompared to measurements via quench heaters & inner coil heatingResults obtained for MQM, MQY, MQ and MB magnets at 4.5KMeasurements and simulation agree within 20%Qualified network model at 4.5KQuench limits simulated for beam induced energy depositionPower density deposition found to vary by up to a factor 2 compared to design value of 5 mWcm-3Quench Level Simulations & Measurements % error between measurement & simulation Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007LHC Beam Position Monitors – All InstalledInjection Lines: 100 Warm, Button BPMs(Buttons Recuperated from LEP) Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007LHC Beam Position Monitors – All Installed912 Button Electrode BPMs (24mm)for theMain Arcs & Dispersion Suppressors Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007LHC Beam Position Monitors – All Installed24 Directional Couplers52 Enlarged Button& 8 Trigger BPMsInteraction Regions Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007LHC Beam Position Monitors – All Installed36 WarmBPMs -34mm ButtonElectrodes Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007LHC Beam Position Monitors – All Installed54 Special BPMs for Tune & Chromaticity,Transverse Damper & RF, Beam Dump Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007LHC Beam Position Monitors – All InstalledAll 1182 BPMs for the LHCand its Transfer Lines are now installed(Sector 7-8 BPMs have survived firstthermal cycle without incident) Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007Status of BPM Acquisition System
  • Series Production of all components nearing completion
  • Wide Band Time Normaliser
  • (40MHz position measurement)
  • All 2282 front-end cards required received
  • All 2288 front-end cards required received
  • Delivery of all spares to be completed by end 2007
  • Digital Acquisition Board
  • (DAB64x - TRIUMF)
  • Standard for BPM, BLM, Fast BCT, Wire Scanners,
  • Luminosity & Q measurement
  • All 1300 BPM type modules received
  • All 500 BLM type modules received
  • Reception Testing
  • 2 automated test benches constructed and manned by external personnel
  • Used for adjustment and calibration of all Wide Band Time Normaliser Cards
  • Beam simulator allows position & intensity linearity measurement for all cards
  • All data stored in MTF & linked to serial number chip located on each card
  • Over 70% of the cards have been tested so far
  • Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007InstallationTunnel installation and hardware commissioning has been completed in arcs ofSector 4LSector 4-5Sector 5-6Sector 6-7 (underway)Sector 7-8Sector 8-1Infrastructure Nearly all fibre-optic, coaxial cable and WorldFIP control links in placeLSS7 & LSS3 are equipped with radiation hard fibres (Fujikura, Japan)Tests have shown that radiation induced attenuation in this fibre for light at 1310 nm is 5 dB/km after 1 MGythis attenuation is reached in the standard Ge-doped fibre after only 500 Gy Status of BPM Acquisition System Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007Aperture Restriction Localisation using the RF Mole (Ping-Pong Ball) and the LHC BPM SystemAB/BI, TS/IC, AT/VAC
  • Aim
  • To find a method to quickly check for obstacles in the beam pipe at warm
  • Principle
  • Air flow to move a lightweight ball that contains an emitter able to trigger the LHC Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system
  • Test location
  • The whole continuous cryostat in each sector (~2.6km)
  • Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007RF emitter
  • Polycarbonate shell
  • Diameter
  • 34mm exterior
  • 30mm interior
  • Total weight
  • ~15 g (ball 8g)
  • RF characteristics
  • 40MHz resonant circuit
  • Generates 20V between copper electrodes
  • Battery powered
  • Over 2hr lifetime
  • Capacitive coupling to BPM electrodes
  • 1V  ~5mV
  • -45db Coupling
  • BPM trigger threshold at ~3mV
  • Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007First Test (13/09)V2 line from Q11.L8 to Q26.L8Air FilterAnemometerQ11.L8Pump at Q26.L8Switched on once the cap was in place Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007BPM Ball TrackingBPM positionFinal BPM acquisition systemInterleaved BPMs (odd/even in arc) on separate front-end CPUsBeam apertureTime stamp (in second)Missing BPM trigger in Q13 ?Last BPM trigger in Q22Ball stopped between Q22 and Q23 Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007Localisation by BPM Reflectometry (AB/RF)
  • 4-8GHz signal coupled into the beampipe using BPM & associated cables
  • Reflected signals analysed for several polarisations
  • No clear signal of the ball location when stopped was obtained by BPM reflectometry comparing the V1 and V2 lines
  • Test performed from Q22.L8 and Q24.L8 (ball expected to be at Q23.L8)
  • However once the ball was sucked back away from the obstruction a very clear signal of the original ball location was observed
  • Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007Damaged PIM in 23L8
  • Nothing expected at this location
  • Re-check of the X-rays showed that 2 fingers were indeed bent into the vacuum chamber
  • Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC20078-7 Complete Sector Test (V2 line)RF Mole Results:
  • Allows aperture check in the arc
  • Localisation to 50m possible using BPMs
  • Now systematically carried out on all sectors before cooldown:
  • 5-6, 7-8 & 8-1
  • so far all OK
  • Test of BPM system in final configuration
  • Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007Measuring Beam Size
  • Beam Profile Measurements in the LHC
  • Workhorses
  • Synchrotron light monitor
  • Wire scanners for cross calibration
  • For injection & matching
  • OTR screens
  • For ions
  • Rest Gas Ionisation Monitor (BGI)
  • Also used as back-up for SR monitor
  • Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007Rest Gas Ionisation Monitors (BGI)
  • Beam 1 and Beam 2 monitors were installed in early 2007
  • Wrong programming of the bake-out led to both horizontal and vertical beam 2 monitors being cooked at 350C instead of baked-out at 200 C
  • All parts of these monitors suffered
  • The brazing material of the window (Pb/Ag alloy) completely melted
  • The ensuing vacuum leak sucked the melted material into the vacuum chamber, polluting the chamber and detector
  • The anti-reflective coating of the quartz widow and one prism were destroyed
  • The Multi Channel Plate (detector) and Electron Generator Array (calibration source) were severely damaged
  • Aluminium pieces were plasticised
  • Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007Reconstruction began immediately salvaging as much as possible and using spare componentsBoth tanks were chemically cleaned and could be re-usedThe quartz windows were re-polishedAll aluminium pieced were re-manufacturedTwo completely new detectors were builtInstallation of these “new” monitors was completed a few weeks agoThe bake-out is now also completeTests are underway to verify the correct functioning of the detectorRest Gas Ionisation Monitors (BGI) Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007Open Issues from previous LHC MACsWhere to place the PMT detectors?When does the wire break?Do downstream magnets quench during a scan?Where to place the PMT detectorsSignal proportional to energy deposited - a lot of signal for nominal intensitySignal level at ~6m changes by less than 50% with energyWire ScannersMariusz SapinskiMariusz SapinskiEnergy per interacting protonEnergy per interacting proton Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007Simulations corroborated by SPS measurements show that a 30mm carbon wire scanned at 1ms-1 will survive ( T < 4000K ) with:25% of nominal LHC beam at injection energy7% of nominal LHC beam at top energy (a function of beam size not energy)Thermionic current plays crucial role as cooling process for temperatures above 3000 KRF-heating does not significantly affect wire temperatureheat transfer plays minimal role as cooling mechanismeventual use of carbon nanotubes will not improve performanceThe carbon work function and wire emissivity are poorly known but are important parameters of the model.Wire Scanners – When does the wire break?Mariusz Sapinski Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007Wire Scanners – Do we quench during a Scan?Mariusz SapinskiSimulations show that:
  • Number of events with large energy deposition is higher in Q5 than D4
  • The wire scanner can work to between 1 to 6 x 1012 protons at 7 TeV
  • Less than one nominal 72 bunch PS batch
  • Main uncertainty due to simulation of small number of interactions in small volume
  • What can be done to increase this margin?
  • Scan faster – can gain up to factor 2
  • Reduce the wire diameter
  • Reduces the number of interactions while reduction of signal strength no issue for PMT
  • Add shielding
  • Difficult as source of energy is from particles hitting the beam pipe close to & within Q5
  • inclusion of Schottky monitors (smaller aperture) in front of Q5 in the simulation had little effect
  • Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007US-LARP ContributionsCollision Rate Monitoring (LBNL)
  • Detector Status
  • 1 detector at CERN
  • 2 detectors undergoing final testing at LBL (HV, Pressure....)
  • 1 undergoing repair for leaky cable due at the end of December
  • Installation Schedule
  • Installation of dummy chamber successfully tested during 2007
  • Final installation of 3 detectors foreseen in Jan/Feb 2007 and one in March
  • Electronics Status
  • Final prototype of front-end electronics is working well & final package expected by January 2007
  • Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007LHC TAN Collision Rate Monitor (LBNL)Results from 2007 Tests at RHICRHIC ZDCLBL Lumi Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007US-LARP ContributionsSchottky Monitoring (FNAL)
  • Schottky Travelling Wave Structures
  • All 4 tanks completed and installed in early 2007
  • Bake-out completed
  • small Ar leak from internal cable on 1 module identified  no VAC issue at this time
  • Travelling wave structure response tested by FNAL team in May 2007
  • Electronics Status
  • All Front-end electronics installed & tested by FNAL team in May 2007
  • Digital acquisition will be the same as for standard LHC tune measurement
  • Front-end control currently being implemented by FNAL
  • Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007US-LARP ContributionsSchottky Monitoring (FNAL)
  • Tevatron Tests
  • Tevatron Schottky monitors fitted with LHC style front-end electronics
  • Results very encouraging
  • big improvement in S/N over current Tevatron system
  • Triple down-mixing to baseband
  • Reduction in instantaneous dynamic range with revolution line outside pass band of final 15kHz crystal filter
  • Use of improved low phase noise local oscillators
  • Old System - first LOResultsNew System - first LOResults Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007Advances on Other Systems
  • Test of all instruments with beam in TI2 successful
  • Screens
  • BPMs & BLMs
  • BCT
  • Software
  • Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007Advances on Other Systems
  • Beam current transformers installed & baked-out in the LHC ring and the Dump Lines
  • Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007Advances on Other Systems
  • Fast camera for synchrotron light monitor (BSRT) successfully tested in the SPS
  • used for SPS injection matching studies
  • employed 4 times faster framing rate (& associated SW)
  • HorizontalVerticalRaw DataCorrected Data Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007Advances on Other Systems
  • Continuous chromaticity measurement via RF modulation using LHC PLL system tested in SPS
  • Dp/p ~2x10-5 DQ ~1x10-4 for Q=6
  • Radial change of only 40mm in SPS
  • Easily tracked by PLL at modulation frequency of 0.5Hz
  • Resolution of better than 1x10-5 obtained for the tune measurement
  • Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007Advances on Other Systems
  • All 4 Cadmium Telluride collision rate monitors (for IP2 (Alice) & IP8 (LHCb) delivered by CEA-LETI
  • Successfully tested with beam in the SPS North Area
  • Full electronics acquisition chain developed & tested
  • Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007Summary
  • Over 60% of both large distributed systems (BPM/BLM) installed
  • Complete slice of BLM system successfully tested in SPS
  • Complete BPM system tested during aperture verifications with RF mole
  • Issues resolved during the year
  • Rest gas ionisation monitor accident during bake-out
  • Huge effort by BI team responsible has enabled all monitors to be re-installed
  • Outstanding wire-scanner issues are resolved
  • Main limitation at top energy will be quench limit of Q5 magnet
  • US-LARP Deliverables
  • Use of RHIC as test bed for tune, coupling & chromaticity control very useful
  • Despite problems delivery of LBNL luminosity monitors still on schedule
  • Schottky collaboration with FNAL has been very effective
  • Outlook for LHC commissioning
  • All necessary instrumentation hardware for the start-up is now in place
  • Most electronics is under test enabling the initial software to be written & tested
  • The functionality will evolve through the commissioning phases
  • Rhodri Jones – CERN Beam Instrumentation Group LHC Beam Instrumentation – MAC2007
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