The Impact Of War

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2. <ul><li>USSR greatly out produced Germany in all key areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Negatives…
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  • 2. <ul><li>USSR greatly out produced Germany in all key areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Negatives </li></ul><ul><li>However, the war economy had not been carefully planned. The war industry was located in vulnerable places and by November 1941Germany occupied an area that contained over half of USSR’s big industries. The area also contained two fifths of Soviets pre-war grain production. </li></ul><ul><li>From June 1941 onwards, USSR began to relocate its industries eastwards. However, production was still low. 1942 production capacity 68% of pre war capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>During war 3500 new factories were built, but these did not run to the same capacity as factories during peacetime. </li></ul><ul><li>There was major shortage of labour and had to be sources from all areas. By 1943, 60% of industrial workforce were women. Over 25% of workforce was aged under 19 or over 50. </li></ul>
  • 3. <ul><li>Positives </li></ul><ul><li>Some have praised the ability of USSR to relocate one eighth of its industrial assets. In Zhukov’s memoirs, the evacuation of industry meant as much to the war effort as the battles themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Historians, such as Chris Ward and Rzheshevsky, claim that the relocation of industry was the largest and most successful operations in history. </li></ul>
  • 4. <ul><li>USSR employed “total war” from the start of the German attack. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1941 and 1942, when particular areas were under threat of German attack, workers had to march out of their factories and join Soviet solders in fighting. </li></ul><ul><li>Labour Committee was set up at beginning of the war. However, Committee only really became effective until November 1942 in stopping essential workers in war production being conscripted into the armed forces. </li></ul><ul><li>In effort to increase labour productivity, USSR abolished holidays and introduced compulsory overtime in 1941. Tens of thousands of Soviet workers were fined or sent to labour camps for poor work or absenteeism. </li></ul><ul><li>However, production still remained relatively low, such as in the coal industry, as workers were often unskilled and inexperienced. There was also poor working and living conditions as well. Production of munitions did double, though, during the war. </li></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>During the war, the US provided military aid to the USSR, in particular trucks and jeeps. Some have estimated that this accounted for one-fifth of Soviet resources from 1943. </li></ul><ul><li>Western historians have often claimed that without such help, it would have taken the USSR many more years to defeat Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>However, Soviet have placed less emphasis on such help, particularly in relation to bringing German forces to a standstill in 1941-1942, before the lend-lease scheme took fall affect. Alan Clark in “Barbarossa” (1965) also supports this belief. </li></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>Create a spider diagram or mind map outlining the effects of war. </li></ul><ul><li>Use p.16-18, ensuring you make it category clear. </li></ul>
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