the universities of ancient greece

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THE UNIVERSITIES OF ANCIENT GREECE BY JOHN W. H. WALDEN, Ph.D. FORMERLY INSTRUCTOR IN LATIN IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY NEW YORK CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 1910 NOV -4 1953 Copyright, 1000 BY CHABLES SCRIBNER'B SONS Published October, 1909 PREFACE THE germ of this book was first presented in the form of public lectures delivered at Harvard University in the spring of 1904. To the material then presented much other material, which it was found impossible to put in the lectures, has been added, and t
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THE UNIVERSITIES OF ANCIENT GREECE BY JOHN W. H. WALDEN, Ph.D. FORMERLY INSTRUCTOR IN LATIN IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY NEW YORK CHARLES SCRIBNER S SONS 1910 NOV -4 1953 Copyright, 1000 BY CHABLES SCRIBNER B SONS Published October, 1909 PREFACE THE germ of this book was first presented in the form of public lectures delivered at Harvard University in the spring of 1904. To the material then presented much other material, which it was found impossible to put in the lectures, has been added, and the whole has been thoroughly revised. It is the feeling of the author that the Greek edu- cation of the imperial times has not received the con- sideration that is due to its importance. This neglect has perhaps been partly owing to the difficulty and uncertainty that have until recently attended the read- ing of many of the authors of this period. We now have, for Libanius s speeches though not yet for his letters the excellent text edition of Richard Forster, but of some other authors important for this subject there is still lacking an authoritative text In some measure also the neglect in question is prob- ably to be accounted for by the general shadow under which every period of Greek antiquity not strictly to be called classical has to some extent rested. Happily this shadow, which is due to the very brilliancy of the so-called classical* period, has been in recent years somewhat dissipated. The attitude of mind that wouldsee in the institutions and productions of the later age only deteriorated forms of the perfect types of the vii viii PREFACE earlier age, and things therefore to be disregarded, is less common now than it was formerly. It will not do to dismiss the Greek education of imperial times with the words barren* and superficial. To those who shared in it, it was a very living thing, and it was bound up with the past life and the religion of Greece in a way which we do not find it easy fully to appreciate. To those living in the eastern part of the Empire the belief in the past of the Greek race that brilliant past that antedated the conquests of Alexander was what the belief in the permanency of Rome was to those living in the western part of the Empire. It was an integral and vital part of their being. The education that rested on such a basis could not be wholly barren and superficial, and any system of education that sur- vived and performed its part in the world for eight hun- dred years certainly merits our closest scrutiny. Notwithstanding the insufficiency, as measured by modern standards, of the ancient sophistical education, it is well for us in this extremely practical age to hold in mind the ideal which that education proposed for itself. This ideal will be found stated on page 351. It received its embodiment in the man who had been trained, morally, intellectually, and aesthetically, to use his powers in the interest of the state. Such a man was the orator. The orator . . . was the man of broad learning and general culture, trained to see the distinc- tions of right and wrong, and to act with reference to them in the service of his Tro Xi?, or native city. A life of service in the interest of the state was here proposed a life, however, based, not on technical knowledge or PREFACE ix scientific attainments, but on a literary and humanistic training. Though undue stress was laid in this edu- cation on the aesthetic training, and though the intel- lectual training was, as judged by modern standards, defective, these facts should not be allowed to obscure the outlines of the ideal. This book is a contribution to the study of the Greek education of imperial tunes. Greek education, how- ever, was a connected whole. It is impossible fully to understand its later forms without having some under- standing of those which preceded them. For this reason, a short account has been given, in the earlier chapters, of the Athenian education in pre- Alexandrian times, and of the conditions which prevailed in Grecianlands in the last three centuries B. C. Exception may be taken to the use of the term Uni- versity as applied to the congregations of professors and students described in these chapters, on the ground that no distinct charters of incorporation were granted them. At Alexandria, however, the Museum was a royal foundation and, if it did not actually receive a charter from the king of Egypt, it resembled in many other respects the modern university. The Capitolium at Constantinople, put on a new basis by Theodosius II in the fifth century, had a rigid organization and was under the immediate direction of the emperor. At other places, as at Athens and Antioch, where the edu- cational organization was less rigid than at Constanti- nople, the teachers and the students formed a recog- nized body in the community, and the teachers were from the time of the Antonines, or even earlier, granted x PREFACE privileges and held subject to governmental control. But, apart from this more formal aspect of the question, the essential elements of the university, the teachers and students, the spirit of learning, the enthusiasm for in- tellectual ideals, were present in all these centres. There seems, therefore, to be ample justification for the use of the word University in connection with them. The lectures which formed the nucleus of this book were designed, not only for professed students of educa- tion and of classical philology, but also for those whose interests were more general. It is hoped that the book will appeal to these three classes of readers, and that, while other investigators in this field may be assisted by the references in the notes, those whose interests are less specific may, by neglecting the notes and reading the pages of the text consecutively, gain a connected and comprehensive idea of the story of Greek education. I desire to express my sincere thanks to Professor Herbert Weir Smyth of Harvard University for his kindness in reading a part of the proof and suggesting to me a number of improvements in the text. To my wife I am indebted for the encouragement she gave me while I was writing the lectures and for helpful suggestions. J. W. H. W. CAMBRIDGE, September 20, 1909. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHATTER PAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY: SELECTED TITLES . xiiiI. INTRODUCTORY II. EDUCATION AT ATHENS IN THE FIFTH AND FOURTH CENTURIES B. C 10 III. THE MACEDONIAN PERIOD 41 IV. EDUCATION AND THE STATE 58 V. ESTABLISHMENT OF UNIVERSITY EDUCATION IN GRECIAN LANDS 68 VI. HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY EDUCATION FROM MARCUS AURELIUS TO CONSTANTINE . 97 VII. THE DECLINE OF UNIVERSITY EDUCATION: THE CONFLICT WITH CHRISTIANITY . 109 VIII. THE PROFESSORS : THEIR APPOINTMENT AND NUMBER 130 IX. THE PROFESSORS : THEIR PAY AND POSITION IN SOCIETY 162 X. WHAT THE SOPHISTS TAUGHT AND How THEY TAUGHT IT 195 XI. PUBLIC DISPLAYS 218 XII. SCHOOLHOUSES, HOLIDAYS, ETC.; THE SCHOOL OF ANTIOCH 265 xi xii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE XIII. THE BOYHOOD OF A SOPHIST.... 282 XIV. STUDENT DAYS........ 296 XV. AFTER COLLEGE........ 334 XVI. CONCLUSION 340
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